A summary of homeobox gene dynamics in the mouse and human evolutionary lineages. The majority of homeobox genes are conserved between mouse and human lineages (grey squares), although some have undergone duplication to different extents (cascaded boxes). Humans have lost the Msx3 gene; mice have lost VENTX, ARGFX, DPRX, SHOX, RAX2, LOC647589, NANOGB and TPRX1 (dashed boxes). Three new homeobox loci (Gm7235, Gm5585 and Crxos1) and one new cluster (Obox) arose in the rodent lineage; one new gene Leutx arose in the lineage leading to primates.
Zhong and Holland BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011 11:169 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-169