Comparison of contemporary demographic patterns (North American Breeding Bird Survey) across the distribution of the cardinalis clade. Demographic data were obtained for latitudes that had genetic samples included in the study. The colored portions represent latitudes that were inferred from the Ecological Niche Models to be stable since the Last Glacial Maximum (light blue), colonized in the Post-glacial period (green), and colonized since the 19th century, Present-day (yellow). A) Population density per latitude; B) Population growth (1966-2007 with 95% CI) per latitude.
Smith et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011 11:136 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-136