C. briggsae mitochondrial ND5 deletion. A. C. briggsae mitochondrial genome positions of ND5 deletion (dashed line at top) and ΨND5 elements-pseudogenes that originated from duplications of ND5. Arrows = primers for PCR assays [reproduced from ]. B. C. briggsae intraspecific phylogeny with C. elegans as outgroup. GL = global intraspecific superclade; KE = Kenya clade; TE and TR = temperate and tropical subclades of GL. C(+) = temperate-clade isolates bearing DRSeq2 compensatory ΨND5-2 alleles; C(-) = those bearing ancestral alleles. % ND5 Del. indicates isolate-specific percentages of total mitochondrial genomes that harbor ND5 deletions as previously determined by qPCR  and confirmed by conventional PCR and gel analysis here (Additional file 1, Table S1). Isolates classified for statistical analyses as experiencing high (bold underlined font), low (normal font), or zero-ND5 ("N/A") deletion levels are indicated on the phylogeny. *ND5 deletion levels for the HK104 isolate used here was estimated based on the standard PCR band size assay described in Howe and Denver  where the results of the standard PCR assay were shown to correlate positively and significantly with a qPCR method used to estimate deletion levels in the other isolates.
Estes et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011 11:11 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-11