Chromosomal cline in Leptidea sinapis across the Palaearctic region. a. Sampling sites and karyotype results. Metaphase plates were observed in 35 individuals, out of which 23 had unambiguous chromosome number counts: Spain - 4, France - 2, Italy - 2, Romania - 8, Kazakhstan - 7. Top row of microphotographs: examples of diploid chromosome number (2n) counted in metaphase I of meiosis (MI). Bottom row of microphotographs: examples of haploid chromosome number (n) counted in metaphase II of meiosis (MII). Maximum likelihood trees for b. CAD, c. ITS2 and d. COI. Bootstrap supports (>50%) are shown for each node. e. Most parsimonious COI haplotype network. Colours refer to each studied region as indicated in the map. ES - Spain, FR - France, IT - Italy, RO - Romania, KZ - Kazakhstan.
Lukhtanov et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011 11:109 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-109