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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Contemporary temperature-driven divergence in a Nordic freshwater fish under conditions commonly thought to hinder adaptation

Kathryn D Kavanagh16, Thrond O Haugen234*, Finn Gregersen3, Jukka Jernvall15 and L Asbjørn Vøllestad3

Author Affiliations

1 Evolution and Development Unit, Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56 (Viikinkaari 9), 00014 Helsinki, Finland

2 Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalléen 21, NO-0349 Oslo, Norway

3 Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis, Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P. O. Box 1066 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo, Norway

4 Hedmark University College, Campus Evenstad, NO-2418 Elverum, Norway

5 Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA

6 Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, 285 Old Westport Road, North Dartmouth, MA, USA

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2010, 10:350  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-350

Published: 11 November 2010

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Analysis of environmental differences between streams with particular attention to water temperature and consequences for timing of spawning and development temperatures. A detailed description of a dynamic factor analysis (DFA) that utilize time-series data on water temperatures covering four years of data. The analysis groups the streams into cold and warm ones. This file includes Figure A1 where factor analysis part of the DFA is plotted for the different streams involved in the study. This file also includes estimates of spawning-time segregation using a generalized additive modelling approach where time and temperature sums are included as predictor variables. Includes Figure A2 showing the GAM model predictions for the timing of spawning.

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Additional file 2:

Parameter estimates and model fit statistics for the most supported models fitted to estimate group effects for 11 traits involved in the study (Table A1).

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Additional file 3:

Qst vs Fst comparisons between pairs of the four demes included in the study (Figure A3). The plots comprise sensitivity plots of QST-values under various g and h2 settings. Left panels show simulations for muscle fiber area, middle panels for notochord length and right panels for the skeletal trait hypurals (as an example of skeletal trait). Horizontal dotted lines indicate the confidence interval for analogous FST-estimates and numbers provided in the figures correspond to mean FST values and expected QST values, respectively. The expected QST corresponds to estimates where g = 0.8 and h2 = 0.3.

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Additional file 4:

Characteristics of microsatellite loci applied in the study. (Table A2).

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