Haplogroup N1a phylogeny. The tree is rooted in macrohaplogroup N. Mutations are scored relative to the revised Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS) . The prefix "@" indicates back mutation, recurrent mutations are underlined, transversions have a base suffix, "d" deletions and "+" insertions, and the poly(C) region in HVS1 and -2 as well as 16519 is excluded. Sequences 1-2, 7-12, 14-17, are new while others have been previously reported [9,31-33]. Samples names are denoted by numerals and their origin is described in the material and methods section. The central European farmer samples N1a type affinities with respective subclades are mentioned on the top of the tree.
Palanichamy et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2010 10:304 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-304