Intron-loss evolution of hatching enzyme genes in Teleostei
1 Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8564, Japan
2 Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Japan
3 Department of Anatomy, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1 Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki 216-8511, Japan
4 Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum & Institute, Chiba, 955-2 Aoba-cho, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8682, Japan
5 Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554, Japan
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2010, 10:260 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-260Published: 27 August 2010
Hatching enzyme, belonging to the astacin metallo-protease family, digests egg envelope at embryo hatching. Orthologous genes of the enzyme are found in all vertebrate genomes. Recently, we found that exon-intron structures of the genes were conserved among tetrapods, while the genes of teleosts frequently lost their introns. Occurrence of such intron losses in teleostean hatching enzyme genes is an uncommon evolutionary event, as most eukaryotic genes are generally known to be interrupted by introns and the intron insertion sites are conserved from species to species. Here, we report on extensive studies of the exon-intron structures of teleostean hatching enzyme genes for insight into how and why introns were lost during evolution.
We investigated the evolutionary pathway of intron-losses in hatching enzyme genes of 27 species of Teleostei. Hatching enzyme genes of basal teleosts are of only one type, which conserves the 9-exon-8-intron structure of an assumed ancestor. On the other hand, otocephalans and euteleosts possess two types of hatching enzyme genes, suggesting a gene duplication event in the common ancestor of otocephalans and euteleosts. The duplicated genes were classified into two clades, clades I and II, based on phylogenetic analysis. In otocephalans and euteleosts, clade I genes developed a phylogeny-specific structure, such as an 8-exon-7-intron, 5-exon-4-intron, 4-exon-3-intron or intron-less structure. In contrast to the clade I genes, the structures of clade II genes were relatively stable in their configuration, and were similar to that of the ancestral genes. Expression analyses revealed that hatching enzyme genes were high-expression genes, when compared to that of housekeeping genes. When expression levels were compared between clade I and II genes, clade I genes tends to be expressed more highly than clade II genes.
Hatching enzyme genes evolved to lose their introns, and the intron-loss events occurred at the specific points of teleostean phylogeny. We propose that the high-expression hatching enzyme genes frequently lost their introns during the evolution of teleosts, while the low-expression genes maintained the exon-intron structure of the ancestral gene.