Selective breeding experiment for the outward type. (A) Modification-type profiles for generations (from the first generation [G1] to the tenth generation [G10]) after the cold-shock treatment. The fourth generation was treated differently, producing the smaller number of the modified individuals. The inward type was not produced. The outward type steadily increases until the fifth generation (G5). (B) The outward induction rate (IR) and reduction IR after the cold-shock treatment in males and females for generations. Females show higher outward IR than males do throughout generations. The outward IR appears to be in a plateau state after the fifth generation (G5). Males show higher reduction IR. (C) Modification rate (MR) for generations without immediate cold-shock treatment to pupae. As in the outward IR, females show higher MR than males do throughout generations. MR increases after the fifth generation (G5). (D) Failure rate (FR) after the cold-shock treatment for generations. FR of the selective line is less than 30% in G6 and in the following generations, indicating that the line is well maintained. The field-caught samples indicated by the red line were not genetically manipulated. Their parent females were caught freshly from the field to collect virgin adults for mating. (E-G) Modified individuals of the tenth generation (G10) in response to the cold-shock treatment. Both fore- and hindwings are severely modified as the outward type in many individuals. (H-J) Modified individuals of the tenth generation (G10) without immediate cold-shock treatment to pupae. Modifications are not severe but clearly observed.
Otaki et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2010 10:252 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-252