Two hypotheses of mimicry evolution in Limenitis arthemis lineages. In the reversion hypothesis (a), mimetic L. a. astyanax is sister to non-mimetic L. a. arthemis. Under this hypothesis, the mimetic phenotype arose in the ancestor to all L. arthemis and was subsequently lost in the L. a. arthemis lineage. In (a), T1 is the divergence time of L. a. arthemis and L. a. astyanax and T2 is the divergence time of L. a. arizonensis from the lineage giving rise to L. a. arthemis and L. a. astyanax. In the monophyletic mimic hypothesis (b), the mimetic lineages L. a. astyanax and L. a. arizonensis are sister taxa. T1 is the divergence time of L. a. astyanax and L. a. arizonensis and T2 is the divergence of L. a. arthemis from the lineage giving rise to the mimetic lineages.
Oliver and Prudic BMC Evolutionary Biology 2010 10:239 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-239