Expression of aging markers 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), p16 and Id1 in bmMSCs as the cells were exposed to acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR, 0.1 mM) and TGF-β1 (5 ng/mL) simultaneously. A. 4-HNE expression; B. P16 expression; C. Id1 expression. Bar graphs represent mean ± SD (4 independent experiments/group). *P < 0.05 vs. treatments with 5 ng/mL TGF-β1.
Wu et al. BMC Developmental Biology 2014 14:21 doi:10.1186/1471-213X-14-21