Early exposure to elevated TGFβ3 levels induces precocious invasion. Stage 14 AVC explants were treated with M199 supplemented with 0 or 200 ng/ml recombinant TGFβ3. The number of invaded cells was counted at 12 or 18 hours. The mean number of invaded cells per explant + the standard error of the mean is shown in the top panel; the percentage of the total number of explants that have significant invasion is shown in the bottom panel. Addition of rTGFβ3 induced an increase in the number of invaded cells per explant and the number of explants with cells undergoing invasion. An asterisk indicates a significant difference from control explants from the same stage (P ≤ 0.05).
LeMasters et al. BMC Developmental Biology 2012 12:22 doi:10.1186/1471-213X-12-22