HDACs exert stage specific effect on left-right patterning. (A) Schematic showing the experimental procedure for NaB treatments. Embryos were exposed to 100 mM NaB from stage 1 to 7 (solid black line) and the drug was washed out (dashed black line). Embryos were collected at stage 7 for anti-acetyl H4 western blotting or were allowed to develop in 0.1X MMR until stage 45 to score organ placement or until stage 21 for ChIP experiments. (B) 100 mM NaB treatment exerts stage specific effects on left-right development. Embryos that were exposed to NaB between stage 1-7 presented significant levels of heterotaxia (100 mM NaB: 22.5%, p < 0.001). NaB exposure after stage 7 does not affect left-right development (stage 7-8 and stage 8-9). (C) NaB treatment led to a significant increase in the H4 acetylation levels. Embryos exposed to NaB from stage 1 to 7 presented 1.8 fold increase, stage 7-8 presented 2.3 fold increase and stage 8-9 presented 2.3 fold increase on the levels of acetylated histone H4 when compared to controls. (* p < 0.05).
Carneiro et al. BMC Developmental Biology 2011 11:29 doi:10.1186/1471-213X-11-29