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Open Access Research article

Organogenesis during budding and lophophoral morphology of Hislopia malayensis Annandale, 1916 (Bryozoa, Ctenostomata)

Thomas Schwaha1* and Timothy S Wood2

Author Affiliations

1 University of Vienna, Department of Morphology, Althanstra├če 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria

2 Wright State University, Department of Biological Sciences, 3640 Colonel Glenn Highway, Dayton, OH 45435 USA

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BMC Developmental Biology 2011, 11:23  doi:10.1186/1471-213X-11-23

Published: 18 April 2011



Bryozoans represent a large lophotrochozoan phylum with controversially discussed phylogenetic position and in group relationships. Developmental processes during the budding of bryozoans are in need for revision. Just recently a study on a phylactolaemate bryozoan gave a comprehensive basis for further comparisons among bryozoans. The aim of this study is to gain more insight into developmental patterns during polypide formation in the budding process of bryozoans. Particular focus is laid upon the lophophore, also its condition in adults. For this purpose we studied organogenesis during budding and lophophoral morphology of the ctenostome bryozoan Hislopia malayensis.


Polypide buds develop on the frontal side of the developing cystid as proliferation of the epidermal and peritoneal layer. Early buds develop a lumen bordered by the inner budding layer resulting in the shape of a two-layered sac or vesicle. The hind- and midgut anlagen are first to develop as outpocketing of the prospective anal area. These grow towards the prospective mouth area where a comparatively small invagination marks the formation of the foregut. In between the prospective mouth and anus the ganglion develops as an invagination protruding in between the developing gut loop. Lophophore development starts with two lateral ridges which form tentacles very early. At the lophophoral base, intertentacular pits, previously unknown for ctenostomes, develop. The ganglion develops a circum-oral nerve ring from which the tentacle nerves branch off in adult zooids. Tentacles are innervated by medio-frontal nerves arising directly from the nerve ring, and medio-frontal and abfrontal nerves which originate both from an intertentacular fork.


We are able to show distinct similarities among bryozoans in the formation of the different organ systems: a two-layered vesicle-like early bud, the ganglion forming as an invagination of the epidermal layer in between the prospective mouth and anal area, the digestive tract mainly forming as an outpocketing of the prospective anal area, and the lophophore forming from two lateral anlagen that first fuse on the oral and afterwards on the anal side. Future studies will concentrate on cyclostome budding to complement our knowledge on developmental patterns of bryozoans.