High-field, nanosecond pulses at high repetition rates permeabilize cell membranes, permitting entry of the small molecule YO-PRO-1 into the cell. Fluorescence microscopic images of Jurkat cells in growth medium containing YO-PRO-1 (5.0 μM) at 0.0, 0.3, 1.0, and 5.0 s after exposure of the cells to 100, 4 ns, 8 MV/m pulses at a repetition rate of 1 kHz. Influx of YO-PRO-1 occurs primarily at the anode pole of the cells.
Vernier et al. BMC Cell Biology 2006 7:37 doi:10.1186/1471-2121-7-37