Phospholipid bilayer re-ordering and PS translocation with shorter pulses requires higher amplitudes. (a) Relative, integrated, whole-cell, FM1-43 fluorescence intensities 5 min after pulse exposure (4, 30 ns pulses; 30, 4 ns pulses; repetition rate = 10 Hz) indicate that to produce an equivalent amount of lipid bilayer perturbation and PS externalization, shorter pulses (4 ns) must have higher fields than longer pulses (30 ns). Note that the total pulse on time for the two pulse widths was adjusted to be approximately the same – 120 ns (4 × 30 ns = 30 × 4 ns). The architecture of the pulse generators does not permit increasing the amplitude of the 30 ns pulses above 3.5 MV/m or decreasing the amplitude of the 4 ns pulses below 4 MV/m. (b) Pulse count dependence of FM1-43 fluorescence intensification 5 minutes after exposure to 3 ns, 6.0 MV/m pulses, repetition rate = 10 Hz.
Vernier et al. BMC Cell Biology 2006 7:37 doi:10.1186/1471-2121-7-37