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Open Access Research article

Germinating fission yeast spores delay in G1 in response to UV irradiation

Esben A Nilssen, Marianne Synnes, Tonje Tvegård, Heidi Vebø, Erik Boye and Beáta Grallert*

Author Affiliations

Department of Cell Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Montebello, 0310 Oslo, Norway

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BMC Cell Biology 2004, 5:40  doi:10.1186/1471-2121-5-40

Published: 21 October 2004

Abstract

Background

Checkpoint mechanisms prevent cell cycle transitions until previous events have been completed or damaged DNA has been repaired. In fission yeast, checkpoint mechanisms are known to regulate entry into mitosis, but so far no checkpoint inhibiting S phase entry has been identified.

Results

We have studied the response of germinating Schizosaccharomyces pombe spores to UV irradiation in G1. When germinating spores are irradiated in early G1 phase, entry into S phase is delayed. We argue that the observed delay is caused by two separate mechanisms. The first takes place before entry into S phase, does not depend on the checkpoint proteins Rad3, Cds1 and Chk1 and is independent of Cdc2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, it is not dependent upon inhibiting the Cdc10-dependent transcription required for S phase entry, unlike a G1/S checkpoint described in budding yeast. We show that expression of Cdt1, a protein essential for initiation of DNA replication, is delayed upon UV irradiation. The second part of the delay occurs after entry into S phase and depends on Rad3 and Cds1 and is probably due to the intra-S checkpoint. If the germinating spores are irradiated in late G1, they enter S phase without delay and arrest in S phase, suggesting that the delay we observe upon UV irradiation in early G1 is not caused by nonspecific effects of UV irradiation.

Conclusions

We have studied the response of germinating S. pombe spores to UV irradiation in G1 and shown that S phase entry is delayed by a mechanism that is different from classical checkpoint responses. Our results point to a mechanism delaying expression of proteins required for S phase entry.