Model for granulocytic nuclear lobulation. A. Postulated changes in nuclear envelope flexibility arising from changes in nuclear envelope composition. HL-60 cell states: undifferentiated; granulocyte, RA treated; monocyte, TPA treated. Abbreviations: inm, inner nuclear membrane; LMNB2, lamin B2; LMNA/C, lamins A/C; LMNB1, lamin B1; HP1, heterochromatin protein 1; LBR, lamin B receptor. Due to a paucity of lamins A/C and B1, the nuclear envelope is believed to be more flexible in the undifferentiated and granulocytic cell states. B. Balance of forces postulated to be affecting granulocytic nuclear shape. Microtubules (green) and affiliated dynein motors (red circles) are assumed to produce nuclear envelope invaginations (bent arrows). Actin with affiliated spectrin-like proteins and vimentin are assumed to be pulling outwards on the nuclear envelope (thin arrows). Current evidence does not favor a major contribution by actin; any significant contribution by vimentin is presently unknown. The large straight arrows indicate continued influx of nuclear envelope components from the endoplasmic reticulum, allowing sustained membrane growth. Abbreviations: MTs, microtubules; IFs, intermediate filaments; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; Eu, euchromatin; H, heterochromatin. The nuclear compartment is colored blue; the cytoplasm, pink.
Olins and Olins BMC Cell Biology 2004 5:30 doi:10.1186/1471-2121-5-30