Simultaneous stimulation of GABA and beta adrenergic receptors stabilizes isotypes of activated adenylyl cyclase heterocomplex
CNRS, University of Burgundy, Centre Européen des Sciences du Goût 15, rue Hugues Picardet DIJON 21000, France
BMC Cell Biology 2004, 5:25 doi:10.1186/1471-2121-5-25Published: 9 June 2004
We investigated how the synthesis of cAMP, stimulated by isoproterenol acting through β-adrenoreceptors and Gs, is strongly amplified by simultaneous incubation with baclofen. Baclofen is an agonist of δ-aminobutyric acid type B receptors [GABAB], known to inhibit adenylyl cyclase via Gi. Because these agents have opposite effects on cAMP levels, the unexpected increase in cAMP synthesis when they are applied simultaneously has been intensively investigated. From previous reports, it appears that cyclase type II contributes most significantly to this phenomenon.
We found that simultaneous application of isoproterenol and baclofen specifically influences the association/dissociation of molecules involved in the induction and termination of cyclase activity. Beta/gamma from [GABA]B receptor-coupled Gi has a higher affinity for adenylyl cyclase isoform(s) when these isoforms are co-associated with Gs. Our data also suggest that, when beta/gamma and Gαs are associated with adenylyl cyclase isoform(s), beta/gamma from [GABA]B receptor-coupled Gi retards the GTPase activity of Gαs from adrenergic receptor. These reciprocal regulations of subunits of the adenylyl cyclase complex might be responsible for the drastic increase of cAMP synthesis in response to the simultaneous signals.
Simultaneous signals arriving at a particular synapse converge on molecular detectors of coincidence and trigger specific biochemical events. We hypothesize that this phenomenon comes from the complex molecular architectures involved, including scaffolding proteins that make reciprocal interactions between associated molecules possible. The biochemistry of simultaneous signaling is addressed as a key to synaptic function.