The membrane remodeling was induced by autophagy. (A) Transmission electron microscope analysis exhibited the induction of autophagy in the venous endothelium. Enlarged square showed the autophagosome (TEM × 10, 000). (B, C) HUVECs were treated with the indicated reagents, followed by fixation and detection by immunofluorescence (B) and western blot (C) with anti-LC3-II antibody. The representative images indicated the dot-like structure of autophagosomes in the cells (B) and the expression of LC3-II in cells (C). Means ± SD are given and were obtained from 4 independent experiments. (D), HUVECs were treated with the indicated reagents, and the formation of dorsal ruffle was analyzed. The data exhibited that rapamycin induced dorsal ruffling. While 3-MA can suppress the formation of dorsal ruffle which was promoted by rapamycin. Means ± SD are given and were obtained from 3 independent experiments.
Jiang et al. BMC Cell Biology 2014 15:7 doi:10.1186/1471-2121-15-7