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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Persistent directional cell migration requires ion transport proteins as direction sensors and membrane potential differences in order to maintain directedness

Nurdan Özkucur*, Srikanth Perike, Priyanka Sharma and Richard HW Funk

Author Affiliations

Department of Anatomy, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany

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BMC Cell Biology 2011, 12:4  doi:10.1186/1471-2121-12-4

Published: 22 January 2011

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Intracellular distribution of NHE3 (TRITC-labeled). The total NHE3 is evenly distributed with slight accumulations in the membrane protrusions in both polarized (+EF, right panel) and non-polarized (-EF, left panel) cells during cathode (Calvaria)- or anode (SaOS-2)-directed motility.

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Additional file 2:

Intracellular distribution of NHE1 (FITC-labeled). The cellular distribution of NHE1 (left panel) is not affected during cathode (Calvaria)- or anode (SaOS-2)-directed motility (right panel).

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Additional file 3:

Intracellular distribution of phosphorylated NaKA (FITC-labeled). Phosphorylated NaKA is homogenously distributed at the cell membrane during directed motility in both cathode (Calvaria)- or anode (SaOS-2)-directed cells.

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Additional file 4:

Intracellular distribution of PIP2 (FITC-labeled). PIP2 localizes along the cell periphery both in anode (SaOS-2) and cathode-directed (Calvaria) cells.

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Additional file 5:

Time lapse imaging of DiBAC(4)3 uptake into the cathode-directed (Calvaria) cells. The dye enters into the cells through the depolarized membrane at the rear end of the polarized cells regardless of their direction. Images were collected every 35 sec for 20 min using inverted fluorescence microscopy.

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Additional file 6:

Time lapse imaging of DiBAC(4)3 uptake into the anode-directed (SaOS-2) cells. The dye enters into the cells through the depolarized membrane at the rear end of the cells regardless of their direction. Images were collected every 35 sec for 20 min using inverted fluorescence microscopy.

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Additional file 7:

Time lapse imaging of H+ fluxes at the cell periphery. pH bubble formation at the termini of membrane protrusions on the leading-edge of cathode-directed (Calvaria) cells during electrotaxis. Cells were loaded with BCECF-AM, a pH reporter, ratiometric dye. Images were collected every 9 sec for 25 min using inverted fluorescence microscopy.

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