Testis-expressed profilins 3 and 4 show distinct functional characteristics and localize in the acroplaxome-manchette complex in spermatids
- Equal contributors
1 Department of Andrology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
2 Zoological Institute, University of Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany
3 Department of Biochemistry, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
4 Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, The City University of New York Medical School, New York, NY, USA
BMC Cell Biology 2009, 10:34 doi:10.1186/1471-2121-10-34Published: 6 May 2009
Additional File 1:
Immunolocalization of PFN4-related protein in spermatids and testicular spermatozoa isolated from human testis. A1-A3) and B1-B3) show dual labelling and confocal microscopy of human round and elongating spermatids employing indirect PFN4 immunofluorescence (green) and PNA lectin binding (red); nuclei were stained with DAPI (dark blue). A4 and B4 show corresponding phase contrast image. Note PFN4 immunofluorescence in acroplaxome and manchette (high lightened by yellow arrows); spermatocyte shows weak cytoplasmic staining. Scale bars correspond to 5 μm. C1–C3 and D1–D3 show dual labelling and confocal microscopy of human testicular spermatozoa employing indirect PFN4 immunofluorescence (green) and PNA lectin binding (red); nuclei were stained with DAPI (dark blue). C4 and D4 show corresponding phase contrast image. Scale bars correspond to 20 μm and 5 μm, respectively.
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Additional File 2:
Sequence alignments for homology modeling. A. Sequence alignment used for the generation of the human PFN3 model. B. Sequence alignment for making the human PFN4 model.
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