In silico panning for a non-competitive peptide inhibitor
1 Department of Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-13 Naka-machi, Koganei, Tokyo, Japan
2 Product Development Dept, Medical & Biological Laboratories Co., 3-5-10 Marunouchi, Nakaku, Nagoya, Japan
BMC Bioinformatics 2007, 8:11 doi:10.1186/1471-2105-8-11Published: 12 January 2007
Peptide ligands have tremendous therapeutic potential as efficacious drugs. Currently, more than 40 peptides are available in the market for a drug. However, since costly and time-consuming synthesis procedures represent a problem for high-throughput screening, novel procedures to reduce the time and labor involved in screening peptide ligands are required. We propose the novel approach of 'in silico panning' which consists of a two-stage screening, involving affinity selection by docking simulation and evolution of the peptide ligand using genetic algorithms (GAs). In silico panning was successfully applied to the selection of peptide inhibitor for water-soluble quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase (PQQGDH).
The evolution of peptide ligands for a target enzyme was achieved by combining a docking simulation with evolution of the peptide ligand using genetic algorithms (GAs), which mimic Darwinian evolution. Designation of the target area as next to the substrate-binding site of the enzyme in the docking simulation enabled the selection of a non-competitive inhibitor. In all, four rounds of selection were carried out on the computer; the distribution of the docking energy decreased gradually for each generation and improvements in the docking energy were observed over the four rounds of selection. One of the top three selected peptides with the lowest docking energy, 'SERG' showed an inhibitory effect with Ki value of 20 μM. PQQGDH activity, in terms of the Vmax value, was 3-fold lower than that of the wild-type enzyme in the presence of this peptide. The mechanism of the SERG blockage of the enzyme was identified as non-competitive inhibition. We confirmed the specific binding of the peptide, and its equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) value was calculated as 60 μM by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis.
We demonstrate an effective methodology of in silico panning for the selection of a non-competitive peptide inhibitor from small virtual peptide library. This study is the first to demonstrate the usefulness of in silico evolution using experimental data. Our study highlights the usefulness of this strategy for structure-based screening of enzyme inhibitors.