Figure 1.

A normal distribution with outliers, showing the relative positions of the mean, median, and mode. In this case, the outliers (contaminants) are normally distributed and centered at twice the distance between the true mode and the 99th percentile of original normal distribution and account for 20% of the total data points.

Hedges and Shah BMC Bioinformatics 2003 4:31   doi:10.1186/1471-2105-4-31
Download authors' original image