Table 1

In simulating the modified approach we considered as "relevant" the citations that were retrieved in full text ("Level 1" screening in Figure 1).


Total citations (N)

Retrieved in full text (% of N)

Included in the systematic review (% of N)

Proton Beam


243 (5.1)

23 (0.5)



196 (12.2)

104 (6.5)

Micro Nutrients


258 (6.4)

139 (3.5)

The Proton Beam dataset is from a systematic review of comparative studies on charged particle radiotherapy versus alternate interventions for cancers [32]. The COPD dataset is from a systematic review and meta-analysis of all genetic association studies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Micronutrients dataset is from a systematic empirical appraisal of reporting of systematic reviews on associations of micronutrients and disease [33]. Note the class imbalance in all three datasets.

Wallace et al. BMC Bioinformatics 2010 11:55   doi:10.1186/1471-2105-11-55

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