Table 4

Liver-derived metabolites identified and quantified by 1H-NMR spectroscopy

Male

Female

Liver metabolite

Saline

Insulin

Saline

Insulin

Significant ANOVA effects


3-Hydroxybutyrate

162 ± 29.0

85.3 ± 38.8

130 ± 10.7

111 ± 15.7

Acetoacetate

12.2 ± 3.7

7.3 ± 3.5

13.7 ± 2.4

12.3 ± 0.7

Alanine

7.0 ± 2.6

2.2 ± 0.5

6.5 ± 1.8

2.9 ± 0.4

Insulin P < 0.05

Choline

7.6 ± 5.2

23 ± 0.9

5.5 ± 1.7

4.6 ± 1.2

Formate

5.5 ± 1.0

3.9 ± 0.8

6.5 ± 0.7

4.7 ± 0.2a

Insulin P < 0.05

Glucose

459 ± 96.1e, f

48.8 ± 15.8e

146 ± 66.4f

27.4 ± 14.9a

Interaction P < 0.05

Glutamate

25.3 ± 6.2a

5.7 ± 1.3a

17.7 ± 2.9

14.7 ± 3.7

Insulin P < 0.05

Glutamine

41.7 ± 26.5

lowd

19.1 ± 3.7

low

Insuling P < 0.01

Glycerol

13.9 ± 7.0

4.9 ± 0.6

5.5 ± 0.5

5.0 ± 0.9

Glycine

12.8 ± 5.1

6.8 ± 3.3

10.5 ± 2.4

8.1 ± 1.7

Histidine

low

low

2.6 ± 1.1b

low

Insuling P < 0.05

Isoleucine

3.1 ± 0.8

2.5 ± 1.4a

2.3 ± 0.2

3.9 ± 0.7

Lactate

94.6 ± 20.2e, f

19.5 ± 2.2e

33.0 ± 10.1f

27.1 ± 8.5

Interaction P < 0.05

Leucine

6.1 ± 1.3

4.3 ± 2.0a

3.8 ± 0.2

7.6 ± 1.3

Phenylalanine

2.6 ± 0.5a

low

1.0 ± 0.3

2.7 ± 0.6b

Propionate

6.7 ± 1.4

2.5 ± 0.8a

7.8 ± 2.1

4.6 ± 1.3a

Insulin P < 0.05

Serine

11.6 ± 5.2

3.2 ± 1.1b

8.7 ± 0.7

11.7 ± 3.2

Succinate

4.8 ± 2.6

0.8 ± 0.2

1.6 ± 0.5a

0.8 ± 0.2

Tyrosine

low

Low

0.9 ± 0.3c

1.6 ± 0.5c

Uridine

low

low

ND

ND

Sexg P < 0.05

Valine

4.7 ± 1.1

3.3 ± 1.6

3.1 ± 0.4

5.3 ± 1.0


Liver perfusates, generated from 12h-fasted male and female rats treated with saline or insulin (s.c.), were anylsed using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The data represent measured concentrations (μM) of analytes and are presented as means ± SEM (n = 4) together with results of statistical analysis.

a 1 measurement below limit of reliable quantification, still used in calculations

b 2 measurements below limit of reliable quantification, still used in calculations

c Not detectable in one sample imputed by lowest detected/2

d Low indicates not calculated due to multiple low or ND samples

e Male Saline vs Male Insulin, Fisher's LSD, P < 0.001

f Male Saline vs Female Saline, Fisher's LSD, P < 0.01

g Evaluated with Friedman's test

Gustavsson et al. BMC Biochemistry 2010 11:38   doi:10.1186/1471-2091-11-38

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