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Medical statistics

Edited by Dr Jonathan Ball, Dr Viv Bewick and Dr Liz Cheek

This series of articles in Critical Care has not been sponsored. All articles have undergone the journal’s standard peer review process overseen by the Series Editor, with final decisions made by the Editor in Chief. The Series Editor and Editor in Chief declare no competing interests.

  1. Review

    Statistics review 14: Logistic regression

    This review introduces logistic regression, which is a method for modelling the dependence of a binary response variable on one or more explanatory variables. Continuous and categorical explanatory variables a...

    Viv Bewick, Liz Cheek and Jonathan Ball

    Critical Care 2005 9:112

    Published on: 13 January 2005

  2. Review

    Statistics review 13: Receiver operating characteristic curves

    This review introduces some commonly used methods for assessing the performance of a diagnostic test. The sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratio of a test are discussed. The uses of the receiver operati...

    Viv Bewick, Liz Cheek and Jonathan Ball

    Critical Care 2004 8:508

    Published on: 4 November 2004

  3. Review

    Statistics review 12: Survival analysis

    This review introduces methods of analyzing data arising from studies where the response variable is the length of time taken to reach a certain end-point, often death. The Kaplan–Meier methods, log rank test ...

    Viv Bewick, Liz Cheek and Jonathan Ball

    Critical Care 2004 8:389

    Published on: 6 September 2004

  4. Review

    Statistics review 11: Assessing risk

    Relative risk and odds ratio have been introduced in earlier reviews (see Statistics reviews 3, 6 and 8). This review describes the calculation and interpretation of their confidence intervals. The different c...

    Viv Bewick, Liz Cheek and Jonathan Ball

    Critical Care 2004 8:287

    Published on: 30 June 2004

  5. Review

    Statistics review 10: Further nonparametric methods

    This review introduces nonparametric methods for testing differences between more than two groups or treatments. Three of the more common tests are described in detail, together with multiple comparison proced...

    Viv Bewick, Liz Cheek and Jonathan Ball

    Critical Care 2004 8:196

    Published on: 16 April 2004

  6. Review

    Statistics review 9: One-way analysis of variance

    This review introduces one-way analysis of variance, which is a method of testing differences between more than two groups or treatments. Multiple comparison procedures and orthogonal contrasts are described a...

    Viv Bewick, Liz Cheek and Jonathan Ball

    Critical Care 2004 8:130

    Published on: 1 March 2004

  7. Review

    Statistics review 8: Qualitative data – tests of association

    This review introduces methods for investigating relationships between two qualitative (categorical) variables. The χ2 test of association is described, together with the modifications needed for small samples. T...

    Viv Bewick, Liz Cheek and Jonathan Ball

    Critical Care 2003 8:46

    Published on: 30 December 2003

  8. Review

    Statistics review 7: Correlation and regression

    The present review introduces methods of analyzing the relationship between two quantitative variables. The calculation and interpretation of the sample product moment correlation coefficient and the linear re...

    Viv Bewick, Liz Cheek and Jonathan Ball

    Critical Care 2003 7:451

    Published on: 5 November 2003

  9. Review

    Statistics review 6: Nonparametric methods

    The present review introduces nonparametric methods. Three of the more common nonparametric methods are described in detail, and the advantages and disadvantages of nonparametric versus parametric methods in g...

    Elise Whitley and Jonathan Ball

    Critical Care 2002 6:509

    Published on: 13 September 2002

  10. Review

    Statistics review 5: Comparison of means

    The present review introduces the commonly used t-test, used to compare a single mean with a hypothesized value, two means arising from paired data, or two means arising from unpaired data. The assumptions und...

    Elise Whitley and Jonathan Ball

    Critical Care 2002 6:424

    Published on: 12 July 2002

  11. Review

    Statistics review 4: Sample size calculations

    The present review introduces the notion of statistical power and the hazard of under-powered studies. The problem of how to calculate an ideal sample size is also discussed within the context of factors that ...

    Elise Whitley and Jonathan Ball

    Critical Care 2002 6:335

    Published on: 10 May 2002

  12. Review

    Statistics review 3: Hypothesis testing and P values

    The present review introduces the general philosophy behind hypothesis (significance) testing and calculation of P values. Guidelines for the interpretation of P values are also provided in the context of a publi...

    Elise Whitley and Jonathan Ball

    Critical Care 2002 6:222

    Published on: 18 March 2002

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Critical Care 2002 7:15

  13. Review

    Statistics review 2: Samples and populations

    The previous review in this series introduced the notion of data description and outlined some of the more common summary measures used to describe a dataset. However, a dataset is typically only of interest f...

    Elise Whitley and Jonathan Ball

    Critical Care 2002 6:143

    Published on: 7 February 2002

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Critical Care 2002 7:8

  14. Review

    Statistics review 1: Presenting and summarising data

    The present review is the first in an ongoing guide to medical statistics, using specific examples from intensive care. The first step in any analysis is to describe and summarize the data. As well as becoming...

    Elise Whitley and Jonathan Ball

    Critical Care 2001 6:66

    Published on: 29 November 2001

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