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Vascular Dementia

Guest editor: Prof Amos Korczyn

© By James Heilman, MD (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (], via Wikimedia CommonsAny damage to the brain may affect cognition. However, although the effects of vascular changes have been known for years, involvement of such changes is becoming increasingly better recognized. In particular the effects of comorbid vascular disease to primary neurodegenerative processes adds to the complexity of the issue. An attempt to clarify the problems needs specific attention to different points, which were recently discussed by several teams of experts at the International Congress of Vascular Dementia (ICVD) in October 2015.

This is an invited collection of articles which focuses on several aspects of tackling problems in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular dementia.


  1. Review

    Genetics of vascular dementia – review from the ICVD working group

    Vascular dementia is a common disorder resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. Determining the extent to which genes play a role in disease susceptibility and their pathophysiological mechanisms cou...

    M. Arfan Ikram, Anna Bersano, Raquel Manso-Calderón, Jian-Ping Jia, Helena Schmidt, Lefkos Middleton, Benedetta Nacmias, Saima Siddiqi and Hieab H.H. Adams

    BMC Medicine 2017 15:48

    Published on: 6 March 2017

  2. Review

    Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) as a model of small vessel disease: update on clinical, diagnostic, and management aspects

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is the most common and best known monogenic small vessel disease. Here, we review the clinical, neuroimaging...

    Ilaria Di Donato, Silvia Bianchi, Nicola De Stefano, Martin Dichgans, Maria Teresa Dotti, Marco Duering, Eric Jouvent, Amos D. Korczyn, Saskia A. J. Lesnik-Oberstein, Alessandro Malandrini, Hugh S. Markus, Leonardo Pantoni, Silvana Penco, Alessandra Rufa, Osman Sinanović, Dragan Stojanov…

    BMC Medicine 2017 15:41

    Published on: 24 February 2017

  3. Review

    Ultrasound and dynamic functional imaging in vascular cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    The vascular contributions to neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation may be assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US). This review summarises the methodology for these widely avail...

    Branko Malojcic, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Farzaneh A. Sorond, Elsa Azevedo, Marina Diomedi, Janja Pretnar Oblak, Nicola Carraro, Marina Boban, Laszlo Olah, Stephan J. Schreiber, Aleksandra Pavlovic, Zsolt Garami, Nantan M. Bornstein and Bernhard Rosengarten

    BMC Medicine 2017 15:27

    Published on: 9 February 2017

  4. Minireview

    Translational models for vascular cognitive impairment: a review including larger species

    Disease models are useful for prospective studies of pathology, identification of molecular and cellular mechanisms, pre-clinical testing of interventions, and validation of clinical biomarkers. Here, we revie...

    Atticus H. Hainsworth, Stuart M. Allan, Johannes Boltze, Catriona Cunningham, Chad Farris, Elizabeth Head, Masafumi Ihara, Jeremy D. Isaacs, Raj N. Kalaria, Saskia A. M. J. Lesnik Oberstein, Mark B. Moss, Björn Nitzsche, Gary A. Rosenberg, Julie W. Rutten, Melita Salkovic-Petrisic and Aron M. Troen

    BMC Medicine 2017 15:16

    Published on: 25 January 2017

  5. Review

    Post-stroke dementia – a comprehensive review

    Post-stroke dementia (PSD) or post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) may affect up to one third of stroke survivors. Various definitions of PSCI and PSD have been described. We propose PSD as a label for any ...

    Milija D. Mijajlović, Aleksandra Pavlović, Michael Brainin, Wolf-Dieter Heiss, Terence J. Quinn, Hege B. Ihle-Hansen, Dirk M. Hermann, Einor Ben Assayag, Edo Richard, Alexander Thiel, Efrat Kliper, Yong-Il Shin, Yun-Hee Kim, SeongHye Choi, San Jung, Yeong-Bae Lee…

    BMC Medicine 2017 15:11

    Published on: 18 January 2017

  6. Review

    Neuroimaging in vascular cognitive impairment: a state-of-the-art review

    Imaging is critical in the diagnosis and treatment of dementia, particularly in vascular cognitive impairment, due to the visualization of ischemic and hemorrhagic injury of gray and white matter. Magnetic res...

    Wolf-Dieter Heiss, Gary A. Rosenberg, Alexander Thiel, Rok Berlot and Jacques de Reuck

    BMC Medicine 2016 14:174

    Published on: 3 November 2016

  7. Opinion

    Is the time ripe for new diagnostic criteria of cognitive impairment due to cerebrovascular disease? Consensus report of the International Congress on Vascular Dementia working group

    Long before Alzheimer’s disease was established as the leading cause of dementia in old age, cerebrovascular lesions were known to cause cognitive deterioration and associated disability. Since the middle of t...

    Robert Perneczky, Oren Tene, Johannes Attems, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, M. Arfan Ikram, Antonio Federico, Marie Sarazin and Lefkos T. Middleton

    BMC Medicine 2016 14:162

    Published on: 3 November 2016

  8. Opinion

    Vascular depression consensus report – a critical update

    Vascular depression is regarded as a subtype of late-life depression characterized by a distinct clinical presentation and an association with cerebrovascular damage. Although the term is commonly used in rese...

    Howard J. Aizenstein, Andrius Baskys, Maura Boldrini, Meryl A. Butters, Breno S. Diniz, Manoj Kumar Jaiswal, Kurt A. Jellinger, Lev S. Kruglov, Ivan A. Meshandin, Milija D. Mijajlovic, Guenter Niklewski, Sarah Pospos, Keerthy Raju, Kneginja Richter, David C. Steffens, Warren D. Taylor…

    BMC Medicine 2016 14:161

    Published on: 3 November 2016

  9. Editorial

    What is new in vascular dementia?

    Any damage to the brain may affect cognition. However, although the effects of vascular changes have been known for years, involvement of such changes is becoming increasingly better recognized. In particular ...

    Amos D. Korczyn

    BMC Medicine 2016 14:175

    Published on: 3 November 2016

  10. Opinion

    Post-mortem assessment in vascular dementia: advances and aspirations

    Cerebrovascular lesions are a frequent finding in the elderly population. However, the impact of these lesions on cognitive performance, the prevalence of vascular dementia, and the pathophysiology behind char...

    Kirsty E. McAleese, Irina Alafuzoff, Andreas Charidimou, Jacques De Reuck, Lea T. Grinberg, Atticus H. Hainsworth, Tibor Hortobagyi, Paul Ince, Kurt Jellinger, Jing Gao, Raj N. Kalaria, Gabor G. Kovacs, Enikö Kövari, Seth Love, Mara Popovic, Olivia Skrobot…

    BMC Medicine 2016 14:129

    Published on: 26 August 2016