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Understanding the links between sex/gender and autism

Series Editor: Meng-Chuan Lai

The male-predominance in the prevalence of autism has many inter-linked implications for understanding the emergence and development of autism. This series, published in Molecular Autism, aims to jointly disentangle the complex relationships between sex/gender differences and autism.

This collection of articles has not been sponsored and articles have undergone the journal’s standard peer-review process. The Guest Editor declares no competing interests.

  1. Content type: Commentary

    Sibling recurrence data from the Baby Siblings Research Consortium (BSRC) recapitulate results from very large clinical family studies that demonstrate the absence of the Carter effect and provide clarificatio...

    Authors: John N. Constantino

    Citation: Molecular Autism 2016 7:32

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  2. Content type: Commentary

    Messinger et al. found a 3.18 odds ratio of male to female ASD recurrence in 1241 prospectively followed high-risk (HR) siblings. Among high-risk siblings (with and without ASD), as well as among 583 low-risk ...

    Authors: Daniel S. Messinger, Gregory S. Young, Sara Jane Webb, Sally Ozonoff, Susan E. Bryson, Alice Carter, Leslie Carver, Tony Charman, Katarzyna Chawarska, Suzanne Curtin, Karen Dobkins, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Ted Hutman, Jana M. Iverson, Rebecca Landa, Charles A. Nelson…

    Citation: Molecular Autism 2016 7:31

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  3. Content type: Research

    Adolescent females with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are an understudied population, yet are also quite vulnerable, due to the increased complexities of social interaction and increased risk for internali...

    Authors: T. Rene Jamison and Jessica Oeth Schuttler

    Citation: Molecular Autism 2015 6:53

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  4. Content type: Research

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed much less often in females than males. Emerging behavioral accounts suggest that the clinical presentation of autism is different in females and males, yet research ...

    Authors: Kaustubh Supekar and Vinod Menon

    Citation: Molecular Autism 2015 6:50

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  5. Content type: Research

    Male predominance is a prominent feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with a reported male to female ratio of 4:1. Because of the overwhelming focus on males, little is known about the neuroanatomical b...

    Authors: Marie Schaer, John Kochalka, Aarthi Padmanabhan, Kaustubh Supekar and Vinod Menon

    Citation: Molecular Autism 2015 6:42

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  6. Content type: Viewpoint

    One of the most consistent findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research is a higher rate of ASD diagnosis in males than females. Despite this, remarkably little research has focused on the reasons for t...

    Authors: Alycia K Halladay, Somer Bishop, John N Constantino, Amy M Daniels, Katheen Koenig, Kate Palmer, Daniel Messinger, Kevin Pelphrey, Stephan J Sanders, Alison Tepper Singer, Julie Lounds Taylor and Peter Szatmari

    Citation: Molecular Autism 2015 6:36

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  7. Content type: Research

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is higher in men than in women. The extreme male brain theory proposes that excessive prenatal testosterone activity could be a risk factor for ASDs. However,...

    Authors: Yasuhiro Masuya, Yuko Okamoto, Keisuke Inohara, Yukiko Matsumura, Toru Fujioka, Yuji Wada and Hirotaka Kosaka

    Citation: Molecular Autism 2015 6:34

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  8. Content type: Review

    Several observations support the hypothesis that differences in synaptic and regional cerebral plasticity between the sexes account for the high ratio of males to females in autism. First, males are more susce...

    Authors: Laurent Mottron, Pauline Duret, Sophia Mueller, Robert D Moore, Baudouin Forgeot d’Arc, Sebastien Jacquemont and Lan Xiong

    Citation: Molecular Autism 2015 6:33

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  9. Content type: Research

    The increased male prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be mirrored by the early emergence of sex differences in ASD symptoms and cognitive functioning. The female protective effect hypothesis posi...

    Authors: Daniel S. Messinger, Gregory S. Young, Sara Jane Webb, Sally Ozonoff, Susan E. Bryson, Alice Carter, Leslie Carver, Tony Charman, Katarzyna Chawarska, Suzanne Curtin, Karen Dobkins, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Ted Hutman, Jana M. Iverson, Rebecca Landa, Charles A. Nelson…

    Citation: Molecular Autism 2015 6:32

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  10. Content type: Research

    A 4:1 male to female sex bias has consistently been observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Epidemiological and genetic studies suggest a female protective effect (FPE) may account for part of this bias; h...

    Authors: Jake Gockley, A Jeremy Willsey, Shan Dong, Joseph D Dougherty, John N Constantino and Stephan J Sanders

    Citation: Molecular Autism 2015 6:25

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  11. Content type: Research

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are more prevalent in males, suggesting a multiple threshold liability model in which females are, on average, protected by sex-differential mechanisms. Under this model, autis...

    Authors: Donna M Werling and Daniel H Geschwind

    Citation: Molecular Autism 2015 6:27

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  12. Content type: Research

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by significant impairment in reciprocal social interactions and communication coupled with stereotyped, repetitive behaviors and r...

    Authors: Valerie W Hu, Tewarit Sarachana, Rachel M Sherrard and Kristen M Kocher

    Citation: Molecular Autism 2015 6:7

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  13. Content type: Research

    Abnormalities in the corpus callosum have been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but few studies have evaluated young children. Sex differences in callosal organization and diffusion...

    Authors: Christine Wu Nordahl, Ana-Maria Iosif, Gregory S Young, Lee Michael Perry, Robert Dougherty, Aaron Lee, Deana Li, Michael H Buonocore, Tony Simon, Sally Rogers, Brian Wandell and David G Amaral

    Citation: Molecular Autism 2015 6:26

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Molecular Autism 2015 6:39

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