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Sex Differences in Development

About the series

We are interested in primary research or review articles that address sex differences in development that are influenced by environmental, social, genetic, hormonal, or other biological factors. Outcome measures may include brain, behavior and/or physiological processes in children/adolescents or animal models of these processes.

Submission deadline: December 1, 2022
Submit your manuscript here.


  1. Monopterus albus is a hermaphroditic and economically farmed fish that undergoes sex reversal from ovary to testis via ovotestis during gonadal development. The epigenetic changes that are associated with gonadal...

    Authors: Qiaomu Hu, Zitong Lian, Xueping Xia, Haifeng Tian and Zhong Li
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:73
  2. Gonadal development is driven by a complex genetic cascade in vertebrates. However, related information remains limited in molluscs owing to the long generation time and the difficulty in maintaining whole lif...

    Authors: Yajuan Li, Liangjie Liu, Lijing Zhang, Huilan Wei, Shaoxuan Wu, Tian Liu, Ya Shu, Yaxin Yang, Zujing Yang, Shi Wang, Zhenmin Bao and Lingling Zhang
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:69
  3. The pituitary gland regulates essential physiological processes such as growth, pubertal onset, stress response, metabolism, reproduction, and lactation. While sex biases in these functions and hormone product...

    Authors: Huayun Hou, Cadia Chan, Kyoko E. Yuki, Dustin Sokolowski, Anna Roy, Rihao Qu, Liis Uusküla-Reimand, Mariela Faykoo-Martinez, Matt Hudson, Christina Corre, Anna Goldenberg, Zhaolei Zhang, Mark R. Palmert and Michael D. Wilson
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:57
  4. Hypoxia is associated with pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia, placental abruption, and gestational sleep apnea. Hypoxic insults during gestation can impact the brain maturation of cortical and subc...

    Authors: E. Nicole Wilson, Steve Mabry, Jessica L. Bradshaw, Jennifer J. Gardner, Nataliya Rybalchenko, Rachel Engelland, Oluwadarasimi Fadeyibi, Oluwatobiloba Osikoya, Spencer C. Cushen, Styliani Goulopoulou and Rebecca L. Cunningham
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:54
  5. Differences in adolescents and adults by sex in blood levels of leptin and adiposity have been described; however, it is not yet clear if these differences arise from the prepubertal stage in subjects with a n...

    Authors: Jose Guillermo Ortega-Avila, Harry García-Muñoz, Alejandro Segura Ordoñez and Blanca C. Salazar Contreras
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:47

    The Correction to this article has been published in Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:67

  6. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of physical activity and its intensity with arterial stiffness and vascular aging and differences by sex in a Spanish population with intermediate cardiovas...

    Authors: Leticia Gómez-Sánchez, Emiliano Rodríguez-Sánchez, Rafel Ramos, Ruth Marti, Marta Gómez-Sánchez, Cristina Lugones-Sánchez, Olaya Tamayo-Morales, Susana Gonzalez Sánchez, Fernando Rigo, Luis García-Ortiz and Manuel A. Gómez-Marcos
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:46
  7. Sex and age associated differences in the tumor immune microenvironment of non-muscle invasive bladder (NMIBC) cancer and associated clinical outcomes are emerging indicators of treatment outcomes. The inciden...

    Authors: Ali Hamade, Deyang Li, Kathrin Tyryshkin, Minqi Xu, Gwenaelle Conseil, Priyanka Yolmo, Jake Hamilton, Stephen Chenard, D. Robert Siemens and Madhuri Koti
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:19