Skip to main content

Results-free review: a new model of peer review

BMC Psychology ran a pilot to trial results-free review from 2016-2020, in addition to the journal's peer-review system. This trial has now closed and the journal now only operates transparent peer-review.

During this trial, authors of research articles could opt-in at submission for their manuscript to be included. 

This collection brings together all articles in BMC Psychology that had undergone the results-free peer-review process as part of this now completed trial.

What is results-free review?

Openness and transparency are the pillars of scientific progress. However, there is a bias towards publishing positive results, distorting the evidence base and undermining the reproducibility of research. Results-free review offers a solution to this problem, focusing editorial decisions on the rationale and methods alone.

Results-free review is a model of peer review, where editors and reviewers are blinded to the results. It happens in two stages:

Stage 1: Review of manuscript, excluding any results or discussion of results.

Stage 2: If accepted following Stage 1, review of complete manuscript to check the results and conclusions do not deviate unjustifiably from the research question and methodology.

New Content Item

How is it different to normal peer review?
All aspects of the peer-review process are the same (with the exception of Stage 1), including the questions for reviewers, criteria for publication and expected turnaround times. See our peer-review policies for more details.

How is it different to Registered Reports?
In Registered Reports, peer review of the study protocol is completed before any experiments are conducted. In results-free review, peer review occurs after the experiments are conducted, as is the case for traditional post-study peer review. We support the Registered Reports format and consider both approaches as complementary.

Need more information on results-free review? Read our Editorial 

  1. While there has been research on catastrophic misinterpretation of ambiguous situations and on the effects of the induction of physiological arousal, there has been no experimental research on the relationship...

    Authors: Barnabas Ohst and Brunna Tuschen-Caffier
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2020 8:17
  2. Risk behaviors among young people are a major social and public health issue. This study aims to assess the impact of a life-skills-based prevention program (called Mission Papillagou) on self-esteem, well-being,...

    Authors: Virginie Moulier, Hélène Guinet, Zorica Kovacevic, Zohra Bel-Abbass, Yacine Benamara, Nadhirati Zile, Arezki Ourrad, Pilar Arcella-Giraux, Emmanuel Meunier, Fanny Thomas and Dominique Januel
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2019 7:82
  3. In Germany, only limited data are available on attitudes towards death. Existing measurements are complex and time consuming, and data on psychometric properties are limited. The Death Attitude Profile- Revise...

    Authors: Jonas Jansen, Christian Schulz-Quach, Nikolett Eisenbeck, David F. Carreno, Andrea Schmitz, Rita Fountain, Matthias Franz, Ralf Schäfer, Paul T. P. Wong and Katharina Fetz
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2019 7:61
  4. Inhibitory control, a key modulatory component of cognition guiding strategy and behaviour, can be affected by diverse contingencies. We explore here the effect of expectation of reward over behavioural adjust...

    Authors: Paula M. Herrera, Alberto Vélez Van Meerbeke, Mario Speranza, Claudia López Cabra, Mauricio Bonilla, Michaël Canu and Tristan A. Bekinschtein
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2019 7:55
  5. Alopecia Areata (AA) is an autoimmune condition that is characterised by non-scarring hair loss. Its aesthetic repercussions can lead to profound changes in psychological well-being. Although physical activity...

    Authors: Y. Rajoo, J. Wong, G. Cooper, I. S. Raj, D. J. Castle, A. H. Chong, J. Green and G. A. Kennedy
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2019 7:48
  6. While extensive research has highlighted the positive mental health outcomes associated with mindfulness, little work has examined how mindfulness may protect the mental health of first responders exposed to t...

    Authors: Isabelle Counson, Dominic Hosemans, Tara J. Lal, Brendan Mott, Samuel B. Harvey and Sadhbh Joyce
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2019 7:34
  7. Previous studies have shown a relationship between delirium and depressive symptoms after cardiac surgery with distress personalities linking to negative surgical outcomes. The aim of the present study is to f...

    Authors: Yujiro Matsuishi, Nobutake Shimojo, Takeshi Unoki, Hideaki Sakuramoto, Chiho Tokunaga, Yasuyo Yoshino, Haruhiko Hoshino, Akira Ouchi, Satoru Kawano, Hiroaki Sakamoto, Yuji Hiramatsu and Yoshiaki Inoue
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2019 7:27
  8. Informed choice is of ethical and practical importance in mammography screening. To assess the level to which decisions regarding such screening are informed is thus imperative, but no specific instrument has ...

    Authors: Maren Reder, Eva-Maria Berens, Jacob Spallek and Petra Kolip
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2019 7:17
  9. In developed countries, there are well documented mental health impacts of HIV/AIDS and patients’ quality of life. Acquiring HIV/AIDS can be a serious psychological trauma and can predispose a person to differ...

    Authors: Aboma Motumma, Lemma Negesa, Gari Hunduma and Tilahun Abdeta
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2019 7:11
  10. This study investigated the long-term effects (12 months post-rehabilitation) of a standard inpatient multidisciplinary rehabilitation program for patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP), in which a control...

    Authors: P. Hampel, A. Köpnick and S. Roch
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2019 7:6
  11. Children develop in the context of the family. Family functioning prominently shapes the psychosocial adaptation and mental health of the child. Several family psychosocial risk factors have been shown to incr...

    Authors: Arwa Nasir, Andrea Zimmer, David Taylor and Jonathan Santo
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2019 7:3
  12. Engagement in productive activities is an important determinant of mental health and quality of life (QoL). Persons with physical disabilities are often confronted with constraints to engage in productive acti...

    Authors: Christine Fekete, Johannes Siegrist, Marcel W. M. Post and Martin W. G. Brinkhof
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2019 7:1
  13. Developmental Language disorders (DLD) are developmental disorders that can affect both expressive and receptive language. When severe and persistent, they are often associated with psychiatric comorbidities a...

    Authors: Adele Assous, Ayala Borghini, Maryse Levi-Rueff, Guy Rittori, Bérangère Rousselot-Pailley, Christelle Gosme, Franck Zigante, Bernard Golse, Bruno Falissard and Laurence Robel
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2018 6:54
  14. There is no generic psychotherapy outcome measure validated for Kenyan populations. The objective of this study was to test the acceptability and factor structure of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation...

    Authors: Fredrik Falkenström, Manasi Kumar, Aiysha Zahid, Mary Kuria and Caleb Othieno
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2018 6:48
  15. Psychological distress with symptoms of depression and anxiety is common and unrecognized in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Efforts have been made to treat psychological distress in CAD with both...

    Authors: Oskar Lundgren, Peter Garvin, Margareta Kristenson, Lena Jonasson and Ingela Thylén
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2018 6:46
  16. Lack of formal education is an important social determinant of health inequality and represents a public health problem. School dropout is particularly common in vocational education; however few prevention pr...

    Authors: Susan Andersen, Morten Hulvej Rod, Teresa Holmberg, Liselotte Ingholt, Annette Kjær Ersbøll and Janne Schurmann Tolstrup
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2018 6:45
  17. Child maltreatment is becoming predominantly multi-type in nature. Studies report that multi-type child maltreatment is associated with low self-esteem in adolescence and adulthood. There is a lack of publishe...

    Authors: Adela A. Mwakanyamale, Dickson P. Wande and Yu Yizhen
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2018 6:35
  18. The effect of cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) on the core symptoms of schizophrenia has proven contentious, with current meta-analyses finding at most only small effects. However, it has bee...

    Authors: Keith R. Laws, Nicole Darlington, Tejinder K. Kondel, Peter J. McKenna and Sameer Jauhar
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2018 6:32
  19. The objectives of the study were to generate normative data for the Oslo Social Support Scale (OSSS-3) for different age groups for men and women and to further investigate the factor structure in the general ...

    Authors: Rüya-Daniela Kocalevent, Lorenz Berg, Manfred E. Beutel, Andreas Hinz, Markus Zenger, Martin Härter, Urs Nater and Elmar Brähler
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2018 6:31
  20. Depressive symptoms are a major comorbidity in older adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, the type of activity-induced knee pain associated with depression has not been examined. Furthermore, there i...

    Authors: Hirotaka Iijima, Tomoki Aoyama, Naoto Fukutani, Takuya Isho, Yuko Yamamoto, Masakazu Hiraoka, Kazuyuki Miyanobu, Masashi Jinnouchi, Eishi Kaneda, Hiroshi Kuroki and Shuichi Matsuda
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2018 6:19
  21. Long-term conditions may negatively impact multiple aspects of quality of life including physical functioning and mental wellbeing. The rapid systematic review aimed to examine the effectiveness of psychologic...

    Authors: Niall Anderson and Gozde Ozakinci
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2018 6:11
  22. It remains unclear to what extent treatment-related gains in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms translate to improvements in broader domains of personal wellbeing, such as community connectedness, l...

    Authors: David Berle, Dominic Hilbrink, Clare Russell-Williams, Rachael Kiely, Laura Hardaker, Natasha Garwood, Anne Gilchrist and Zachary Steel
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2018 6:7
  23. Child maltreatment and eating disorders are significant public health problems. Yet, to date, research has focused on the role of child physical and sexual abuse in eating-related pathology. This is despite th...

    Authors: Melissa Kimber, Jill R. McTavish, Jennifer Couturier, Alison Boven, Sana Gill, Gina Dimitropoulos and Harriet L. MacMillan
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2017 5:33
  24. Muscle dysmorphia (MD) is a relatively young diagnosis referring to the desire for a high degree in lean muscle mass, while simultaneously believing that one is insufficiently muscular, mostly found in men. It...

    Authors: Catharina Schneider, Maria Agthe, Takuya Yanagida, Martin Voracek and Kristina Hennig-Fast
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2017 5:19
  25. Tableware size may influence how much food and non-alcoholic drink is consumed. Preliminary evidence of the impact of glass size on purchasing of alcoholic drinks shows an increase in wine sales of almost 10% ...

    Authors: Z. Zupan, R. Pechey, D. L. Couturier, G. J. Hollands and T. M. Marteau
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2017 5:17
  26. The evidence that many of the findings in the published literature may be unreliable is compelling. There is an excess of positive results, often from studies with small sample sizes, or other methodological l...

    Authors: Katherine S. Button, Liz Bal, Anna Clark and Tim Shipley
    Citation: BMC Psychology 2016 4:59