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Neuroinflammation and brain disease

Guest Editors:
Anna Bersano: Istituto Neurologico "Carlo Besta", Italy
Jürgen Engele: University of Leipzig, Germany
Michael Schäfer: University Medical Center of Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany 

BMC Neurology and BMC Neuroscience welcomed submissions to our Collection on Neuroinflammation and Brain Disease.  Pathogenic conditions can trigger neuroinflammation leading to disruption of CNS structure and function. Neuroinflammation has a key role in the onset and/or progression of several CNS disorders, including acute brain injuries such as stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI), and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Multiple sclerosis (MS), and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Additionally, with the advent of COVID-19, neuroinflammation in response to viral infections has received tremendous attention. The purpose of this collection was to provide the most up-to-date experimental and clinical research on key molecular pathways involved in neuroinflammation including research on therapeutic approaches and biomarkers.

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Meet the Guest Editors

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Anna Bersano: Istituto Neurologico "Carlo Besta", Italy

Dr. Anna Bersano is a Vascular neurologist, head of the cerebrovascular Unit at Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy. She has a long term expertise in Cerebrovascular disease and particularly heritable and rare causes of stroke as CADASIL, Moyamoya Disease, Fabry disease and Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy (CAA).


Jürgen Engele: University of Leipzig, Germany

Prof. Engele received his PhD in human biology from the University of Ulm, Germany, followed by postdoctoral training at the Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Rochester, NY, USA. Since 2001 he is a professor of anatomy at the University of Leipzig, Germany. His long-standing research interest is the role of astrocytes in the healthy and diseased CNS. An additional focus of his research in recent years is the function of the CXCL12 receptor, CXCR7, in different types of cells and pathologies. 

Michael Schäfer: University Medical Center of Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany

Michael Schäfer is a University Professor at the University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Germany since 2013. Michael investigates the pathological mechanisms of neurological disorders with a special focus on experimental brain injuries such as traumatic brain injury and stroke. He became a senior Editorial Board Member of BMC Neuroscience in 2020.

About the collection

BMC Neurology and BMC Neuroscience welcomed submissions to our Collection on Neuroinflammation and Brain Disease.  Inflammation is a biological process that dynamically alters the surrounding microenvironment, including participating immune cells. As a well-protected organ surrounded by specialized barriers and with immune privilege properties, the central nervous system (CNS) tightly regulates immune responses. In neuroinflammatory conditions, pathogenic immunity can disrupt CNS structure and function. Neuroinflammation has a key role in the onset and/or progression of several neurological disorders, including stroke, Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's condition, Multi-sclerosis (MS), and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). 

Microglia are critical cells involved in the brain inflammation and specifically in inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases. Under the influence of exogenous and endogenous factors (trauma, stroke, chronic infections, disease related proteins like Aβ, Tau/p-Tau or α-syn,), the activation of microglia triggers several signal transduction pathways, including phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), leading to NF-κB activation. The subsequent production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, inducible enzymes (e.g., iNOS) and COX-2 drives to neuroinflammation.

Numerous studies have indeed documented the increased production of different cytokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-18, IL-12, IL-23, IL-33 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in various neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. For example, an high expression of IL-1β in microglia cells surrounding Aβ plaques was observed in AD patients. Moreover, the neuroinflammation observed in neurological disorders has a pivotal role in exacerbating Aβ burden and tau hyperphosphorylation, suggesting that stimulating cytokines in response to an undesirable external response could be a checkpoint for treating neurological disorders.

The purpose of this collection was to provide the most updated research on crucial molecular pathways involved in neuroinflammation. Deciphering inflammatory biomarkers and their function in the CNS pathophisiology has important implications for understanding the pathogenesis of most of important CNS disorders.

Image credit: Design_Cells / Shutterstock

  1. In patients experiencing acute ischemic stroke, there is ongoing debate surrounding the connection between chronic hyperglycemic status and their initial clinical outcomes. Our objective was to examine the con...

    Authors: Changchun Cao, Tony Bowei Wang, Haofei Hu, Yong Han, Xiaohua Zhang and Yulong Wang
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2024 24:85
  2. Postoperative delirium is a frequent and severe complication after cardiac surgery. Activity of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) has been discussed controversially regarding a possible role in its development. Thi...

    Authors: Konstantin Schlake, Johannes Teller, Lukas Hinken, Hans Laser, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Andreas Schäfer, Christine Fegbeutel, Karin Weissenborn, Carolin Jung, Hans Worthmann and Maria Magdalena Gabriel
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2024 24:80
  3. TBI is a leading cause of death and disability in young people and older adults worldwide. There is no gold standard treatment for TBI besides surgical interventions and symptomatic relief. Post-injury infecti...

    Authors: Katharina Ritter, Pawit Somnuke, Lingjiao Hu, Eva-Verena Griemert and Michael K.E. Schäfer
    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2024 25:10
  4. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide, and destruction of the cerebrovascular system is a major factor in the cascade of secondary injuries caused by TBI. ...

    Authors: Huiling Yi, Shuo Wu, Xiaohan Wang, Lanxiang Liu, Wenzhu Wang, Yan Yu, Zihan Li, Yinglan Jin, Jian Liu, Tao Zheng and Dan Du
    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2024 25:8
  5. T1 hypointense lesions are considered a surrogate marker of tissue destruction. Although there is a shortage of evidence about T1 hypointense brain lesions, black holes, in patients with Neuromyelitis Optica S...

    Authors: Mohamad Ghazanfari Hashemi, Vahid Talebi, Naghmeh Abbasi Kasbi, Mehrshad Abbasi, Nasrin Asgari and Mohammad Ali Sahraian
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2024 24:62
  6. To explore the predictive value of radiomics in predicting stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients and construct a prediction model based on clinical features and DWI-MRI radi...

    Authors: Haowen Luo, Jingyi Li, Yongsen Chen, Bin Wu, Jianmo Liu, Mengqi Han, Yifan Wu, Weijie Jia, Pengfei Yu, Rui Cheng, Xiaoman Wang, Jingyao Ke, Hongfei Xian, Jianglong Tu and Yingping Yi
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2024 24:45
  7. Wilson’s disease (WD) is an inherited disorder of copper metabolism. Agenesis of the corpus callosum is the complete or partial absence of the major united fiber bundles connecting the cerebral hemispheres. In...

    Authors: Liangjie Zhang, Ling Zhu, Chunling Ci, Wenlong Ai, Yu Wang and Xun Wang
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2024 24:44
  8. Tsutsugamushi (scrub typhus) is an acute infectious febrile disease common in the Asia-Pacific region. Common symptoms of tsutsugamushi include lymphadenopathy, fever, and myalgia, and it rarely causes acute i...

    Authors: Dain Kim, Yeon Hee Cho, Jeong Bin Bong, Young Seo Kim, Byoung-Soo Shin and Hyun Goo Kang
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2024 24:42
  9. There are very limited reports on anti-metabolic glutamate receptor5 (mGluR5) encephalitis, especially lacking of pediatric research. The disease was mostly accompanied by tumors, mainly Hodgkin's lymphoma. No...

    Authors: Kaili Shi, Huimin Zhao, Ying Li, Xiaojing Li and Wenxiong Chen
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2024 24:27
  10. Stroke is one of the neurological manifestations of COVID-19, leading to a significant risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinical manifestations and laboratory parameters were investigated to determine mortalit...

    Authors: Abdul Gofir, Irawan Satriotomo, Yossy Catarina Budi Nur Syamsah, Mawaddah Ar Rochmah, Tommy Rachmat Setyawan, Adika Mianoki, Raymond Aris Nimrod Alvonsius Silalahi and Dhite Bayu Nugroho
    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2024 25:4
  11. To investigate the potential diagnostic and prognostic implications of inflammatory cytokine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) upon their init...

    Authors: Tianyan Gu, Jingyu Pan, Ling Chen, Kai Li, Li Wang, Zhihao Zou and Qinghai Shi
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2024 24:7
  12. According to recent research, selective neuronal vulnerability in Parkinson’s disease (PD) results from several phenotypic traits, including calcium-dependent, feed-forward control of mitochondrial respiration...

    Authors: Margarita Danielyan, Kristina Nebogova, Ruzan Simonyan, Anichka Hovsepyan, Zubeida Avetisyan, Karen Simonyan, Gegham Simonyan, Vahagn Khachatryan and Kristine Karapetyan
    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2023 24:69
  13. It has been suggested that exercise training and postbiotic supplement could decelerate the progress of functional and biochemical deterioration in double transgenic mice overexpresses mutated forms of the gen...

    Authors: Attila Kolonics, Zoltán Bori, Ferenc Torma, Dora Abraham, János Fehér and Zsolt Radak
    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2023 24:68
  14. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a recurring inflammatory demyelinating disease that is commonly observed in Asian countries like China. Prior investigations have shown that mycophenolate mofe...

    Authors: Gong Li, Xiaoyu Ma, Lijuan Xia, Ran Wei, Xiran Wang, Cang Li, Yuge Wang, Limin He, Hao Ren, Jian Sun and Wei Qiu
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2023 23:444
  15. The prevalence and pathophysiological mechanisms of cognitive deficits (CD) Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are very heterogeneous and poorly understood. We characterized CD in...

    Authors: Daniela Cabral de Sousa, Emmanuelle Silva Tavares Sobreira, Werbety Lucas Queiroz Feitosa, Ticiana Maria Pinto Moreira Aires, Leticia Pastuszka Paz Araújo, Andressa Laura Castro Silva, Caroline Brandão Joventino, Nathalia Maria Tomaz Silveira, Adriano José Maia Chaves-Filho, Danielle Silveira Macêdo and Pedro Braga-Neto
    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2023 24:66
  16. Persistent primitive trigeminal artery variant (PPTAv) is a rare remnant of the primitive intracranial embryonic anastomotic arteries, and its persistence has an unknown etiology. Trigeminal neuralgia attribut...

    Authors: Zhengyan Zhu, Zhenpan Zhang and Risheng Liang
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2023 23:432
  17. Increasingly, non-pharmacological interventions are being identified and applied to post-stroke dysphagia. Nevertheless, there is insufficient evidence to assess which type of interventions are more effective....

    Authors: Hao Zhu, Xinyuan Deng, Guorui Luan, Yu Zhang and Yichen Wu
    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2023 24:53
  18. Early diagnosis of Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis with non-invasive imaging modalities benefiting is crucial to guarantee prompt treatments decision-making and good prognosis for ...

    Authors: Leilei Yuan, Guangjuan Mao, Yudi Zhang, Yang Xu, Qian Chen, Baoci Shan, Tao Cui and Lin Ai
    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2023 24:51
  19. The goal of this research was to explore the role of Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in Parkinson’s disease (PD).

    Authors: Samaneh Hosseini, Nasim Shafiabadi, Monireh Khanzadeh, Arshin Ghaedi, Raziyeh Ghorbanzadeh, Amir Azarhomayoun, Aida Bazrgar, Jalil Pezeshki, Hanieh Bazrafshan and Shokoufeh Khanzadeh
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2023 23:333
  20. Post-stroke depression (PSD), as one of the common complications after stroke, seriously affects the physical and mental health and functional prognosis of patients. Previous studies have shown that the increa...

    Authors: Yufeng Liu, Lu Liu, Zhongwen Zhi, Rui Chen, Qing Wang, Mengchao Wang, Yuqian Wang and Liandong Zhao
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2023 23:294
  21. Prognosticating the clinical outcome of neurological diseases is essential to guide treatment and facilitate decision-making. It usually depends on clinical and radiological findings. Biomarkers have been sugg...

    Authors: Tammam Abboud, Veit Rohde and Dorothee Mielke
    Citation: BMC Neuroscience 2023 24:38
  22. Starting from the perspective of an immune-privileged site, our knowledge of the inflammatory processes within the central nervous system has increased rapidly over the last 30 years, leading to a rather puzzl...

    Authors: A. Bersano, J. Engele and M.K.E. Schäfer
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2023 23:227
  23. Neuroinflammation might be involved in the degeneration and progression of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Here, we studied the role of the circulating lymphocytes in ALS, in particular the NK cells. We f...

    Authors: Tommaso Piccoli, Francesca Castro, Vincenzo La Bella, Serena Meraviglia, Marta Di Simone, Giuseppe Salemi, Francesco Dieli and Rossella Spataro
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2023 23:222
  24. Ischemic stroke with active cancer is thought to have a unique mechanism compared to conventional stroke etiologies. There is no gold standard guideline for secondary prevention in patients with cancer-related...

    Authors: Bo Kyu Choi, Ji Sung Lee, Hae Reong Kim, Han Sang Kim, Yo Han Jung and Yu Rang Park
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2023 23:187

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Neurology 2023 23:197

Submission Guidelines

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This Collection welcomes submission of Research Articles. Before submitting your manuscript, please ensure you have read the submission guidelines of the journal you are submitting to, whether it's BMC Neurology or BMC Neuroscience. Articles for this Collection should be submitted via our submission system, SNAPP, on BMC Neurology or BMC Neurocience. During the submission process you will be asked whether you are submitting to a Collection, please select "Neuroinflammation and Brain Disease" from the dropdown menu.

Articles will undergo the standard peer-review process of the journal they are considered in (BMC Neurology, BMC Neuroscience) and are subject to all of the journal’s standard policies. Articles will be added to the Collection as they are published.

The Guest Editors have no competing interests with the submissions which they handle through the peer review process. The peer review of any submissions for which the Guest Editors have competing interests is handled by another Editorial Board Member who has no competing interests.