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Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts

Thematic Series

Open for submissions until 31 July 2023 - submit here.

Immunocompromised hosts are uniquely vulnerable to infection.

Patients with genetic, acquired or iatrogenic immunodeficiency are not only susceptible to unusual pathogens but also often present with atypical symptoms or prolonged illness even with more common infections. Diagnosis can be challenging due to low pathogen burden, a lack of standardised tests for uncommon organisms and the unreliability of immunological tests such as serology in patients with compromised immunity or who are receiving antibody replacement therapy.

In the absence of immunological pressure, pathogens may evolve within immunocompromised hosts. Frequent exposure to antimicrobial agents and failure to adequately control infection can lead to significant issues of antimicrobial resistance. Treatment, especially achieving sustained eradication of pathogens, can be extremely challenging. The host microbiome, fungome and virome may be significantly altered, even in the absence of overt infection or antimicrobial therapy.

This special issue of the Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials will focus on infections in immunocompromised populations. Specifically, we are interested in novel or rarely described organisms, unusual presentations of otherwise common infections, issues of antimicrobial resistance, within-host evolution, microbiome analysis and any aspect of therapeutics in this population.

We welcome submissions relating to clinical presentations, antimicrobial therapy, epidemiology, pathogen diagnostics and host immunology including host-pathogen interaction. The scope includes clinical case series (especially interventional studies), population-based surveys, in vitro analyses of clinical samples and animal models of infection in immunocompromised states. We also welcome relevant reviews in any of these areas.

Please click here for submission guidelines

  1. Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) is an opportunistic fungus responsible for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in deeply immunocompromised patients and for pulmonary colonization in individuals with mild immunosup...

    Authors: Alan Rucar, Anne Totet, Yohann Le Govic, Baptiste Demey and Céline Damiani
    Citation: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 2024 23:8
  2. The current study evaluated the diagnostic performance of serum (1,3)-beta-D Glucan (BDG) in differentiating PJP from P. jirovecii-colonization in HIV-uninfected patients with P. jirovecii PCR-positive results.

    Authors: Yuan Huang, Jie Yi, Jing-jing Song, Li-jun Du, Xiao-meng Li, Lin-lin Cheng, Song-xin Yan, Hao-long Li, Yong-mei Liu, Hao-ting Zhan, Ya-ling Dou and Yong-zhe Li
    Citation: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 2023 22:102
  3. Central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS TB) is a severe Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. It is unclear whether a patient’s immune status alters the clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of CN...

    Authors: Woraseth Saifon, Khemajira Karaketklang and Anupop Jitmuang
    Citation: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 2023 22:69
  4. This study provided a theoretical basis for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infection after liver transplantation through analyzing the pathogenic distribution, drug sensitivity and risk fact...

    Authors: Min Liu, Cuiying Li, Jing Liu and Qiquan Wan
    Citation: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 2023 22:63
  5. The tick-borne bacterium, Neoehrlichia mikurensis (N. mikurensis) can cause severe febrile illness and thromboembolic complications in immunocompromised individuals. We investigated the presence of N. mikurensis ...

    Authors: Rosa Maja Møhring Gynthersen, Mette Frimodt Hansen, Lukas Frans Ocias, Andreas Kjaer, Randi Føns Petersen, Sisse Rye Ostrowski, Lene Harritshøj, Søren Jacobsen, Ulrik Overgaard, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Anne-Mette Lebech and Helene Mens
    Citation: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 2023 22:20
  6. Identifying persistent bacteremia early in patients with neutropenia may improve outcome. This study evaluated the role of follow-up blood cultures (FUBC) positivity in predicting outcomes among patients with ...

    Authors: Abi Manesh Sathya Kumar, Mithun Mohan George, Kundakarla Bhanuprasad, Grace Mary John, Anu Korula, Aby Abraham, Vikram Mathews, Uday Prakash Kulkarni, Chaitra Shankar, Prasanna Samuel Premkumar, Binila Chacko, K. Subramani, George M. Varghese, V. Balaji and Biju George
    Citation: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 2023 22:12
  7. Cryptococcuria is a rare manifestation of localized cryptococcal disease. We present a case of Cryptococcus neoformans urinary tract infection in an immunocompromised host missed by routine laboratory workup. The...

    Authors: Zoe F. Weiss, James E. DiCarlo, David W. Basta, Stephanie Kent, Alexis Liakos, Lindsey Baden, Manfred Brigl, Sanjat Kanjilal, Connie Cañete-Gibas, Nathan P. Wiederhold and Sankha S. Basu
    Citation: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 2022 21:49
  8. Early-life antibiotic exposure is associated with the development of later obesity through the disruption of gut microbiota in the animal models. However, the related epidemiological evidence is still conflict...

    Authors: Ping Li, Xuelian Chang, Xiaoyu Chen, Chuan Wang, Yu Shang, Dongyi Zheng and Kemin Qi
    Citation: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 2022 21:46
  9. Group B streptococci (GBS) are bacteria that can cause preterm birth and invasive neonatal disease. Heterogeneous expression of virulence factors enables GBS to exist as both commensal bacteria and to become h...

    Authors: Emily M. Huebner, Margrét Johansson Gudjónsdóttir, Matthew B. Dacanay, Shayla Nguyen, Alyssa Brokaw, Kavita Sharma, Anders Elfvin, Elisabet Hentz, Ysabella Raceli Rivera, Nicole Burd, Megana Shivakumar, Brahm Coler, Miranda Li, Amanda Li, Jeff Munson, Austyn Orvis…
    Citation: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 2022 21:43
  10. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a common human pathogen, responsible for a broad spectrum of infections. Sites of infection can vary, but the hepato-biliary system is of particular concern due to the infection-asso...

    Authors: Bernd Neumann, Norman Lippmann, Sebastian Wendt, Thomas Karlas, Christoph Lübbert, Guido Werner, Yvonne Pfeifer and Christopher F. Schuster
    Citation: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 2022 21:28
  11. Lyme borreliosis is the most prevalent arthropod-borne infection in the Northern Hemisphere. In Europe, Borrelia afzelii is predominantly involved in cutaneous manifestations, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia bavari...

    Authors: Pierre Duffau, Skander Korbi, Vivien Guillotin, Emilie Talagrand-Reboul, Armelle Ménard and Olivia Peuchant
    Citation: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 2022 21:15
  12. There is growing evidence that antibody responses play a role in the resolution of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients with primary or secondary antibody deficiency are at increased risk of persistent infection. Th...

    Authors: Yusri Taha, Hayley Wardle, Adam B. Evans, Ewan R. Hunter, Helen Marr, Wendy Osborne, Matthew Bashton, Darren Smith, Shirelle Burton-Fanning, Matthias L. Schmid and Christopher J. A. Duncan
    Citation: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 2021 20:85