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Day of Immunology 2015

Immunology does not excite a media frenzy, yet it infiltrates and underpins so many scientific disciplines. Immunological research is diverse and the articles featured in this series exemplify perfectly its wide-ranging nature.

This is a retrospective collection, collated from previously published articles from BioMed Central journals.

  1. Research

    Mucus mediated protection against acute colitis in adiponectin deficient mice

    Acute ulcerative colitis is an inflammation-driven condition of the bowel. It hampers the general homeostasis of gut, resulting in decreased mucus production and epithelial cell renewal. Adiponectin (APN), an ...

    Kamaljeet Kaur, Arpit Saxena, Bianca Larsen, Samantha Truman, Nathan Biyani, Emma Fletcher, Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga, Venkatesh Ponemone, Shweta Hegde, Anindya Chanda and Raja Fayad

    Journal of Inflammation 2015 12:35

    Published on: 29 April 2015

  2. Short report

    Natural cutaneous anthrax infection, but not vaccination, induces a CD4+ T cell response involving diverse cytokines

    Whilst there have been a number of insights into the subsets of CD4+ T cells induced by pathogenic Bacillus anthracis infections in animal models, how these findings relate to responses generated in naturally inf...

    Rebecca J Ingram, Stephanie Ascough, Catherine J Reynolds, Gökhan Metan, Mehmet Doganay, Les Baillie, Diane E Williamson, John H Robinson, Bernard Maillere, Rosemary J Boyton and Daniel M Altmann

    Cell & Bioscience 2015 5:20

    Published on: 26 April 2015

  3. Research

    Dynamic changes in short- and long-term bacterial composition following fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) that often fails standard antibiotic therapy. Despite its widespread recent use, however, littl...

    Alexa Weingarden, Antonio González, Yoshiki Vázquez-Baeza, Sophie Weiss, Gregory Humphry, Donna Berg-Lyons, Dan Knights, Tatsuya Unno, Aleh Bobr, Johnthomas Kang, Alexander Khoruts, Rob Knight and Michael J Sadowsky

    Microbiome 2015 3:10

    Published on: 30 March 2015

  4. Research article

    Anti-inflammatory components of the Vietnamese starfish Protoreaster nodosus

    In the present study, we examined the inhibitory effects of a methanolic extract, dichloromethane fraction, water layer, and polyhydroxylated sterols (1–4) isolated from the Vietnamese starfish Protoreaster nodos...

    Nguyen Phuong Thao, Bui Thi Thuy Luyen, Jung Eun Koo, Sohyun Kim, Young Sang Koh, Nguyen Xuan Cuong, Nguyen Hoai Nam, Phan Van Kiem, Young Ho Kim and Chau Van Minh

    Biological Research 2015 48:12

    Published on: 20 February 2015

  5. Research article

    MicroRNA signatures differentiate Crohn’s disease from ulcerative colitis

    Excessive and inappropriate immune responses are the hallmark of several autoimmune disorders, including the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD): Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). A complex etiol...

    Jeremy S Schaefer, Taraq Attumi, Antone R Opekun, Bincy Abraham, Jason Hou, Harold Shelby, David Y Graham, Charles Streckfus and John R Klein

    BMC Immunology 2015 16:5

    Published on: 10 February 2015

  6. Methodology article

    A laboratory test based on determination of cytokine profiles: a promising assay to identify exposition to contact allergens and predict the clinical outcome in occupational allergic contact dermatitis

    Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the main allergen causing adverse reactions to hair dyes and a frequent cause of occupational-related skin sensitization among hairdressers and beauticians. The immunologic mecha...

    Valentina Bordignon, Francesca Palamara, Giorgia Altomonte, Isabella Sperduti, Mario Pietravalle, Claudia Cavallotti, Paola Cordiali-Fei, Maria Pia Fuggetta, Antonio Cristaudo and Fabrizio Ensoli

    BMC Immunology 2015 16:4

    Published on: 6 February 2015

  7. Research

    Anti-inflammatory effects of BHBA in both in vivo and in vitro Parkinson’s disease models are mediated by GPR109A-dependent mechanisms

    Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroinflammation plays an important role in the progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Excessively activated microglia produce several pro-inflammatory enzymes and pro-in...

    Shou-Peng Fu, Jian-Fa Wang, Wen-Jing Xue, Hong-Mei Liu, Bing-run Liu, Ya-Long Zeng, Su-Nan Li, Bing-Xu Huang, Qing-Kang Lv, Wei Wang and Ju-Xiong Liu

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2015 12:9

    Published on: 17 January 2015

  8. Review

    Current immunological and molecular tools for leptospirosis: diagnostics, vaccine design, and biomarkers for predicting severity

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic spirochaetal illness that is endemic in many tropical countries. The research base on leptospirosis is not as strong as other tropical infections such as malaria. However, it is a l...

    Senaka Rajapakse, Chaturaka Rodrigo, Shiroma M Handunnetti and Sumadhya Deepika Fernando

    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 2015 14:2

    Published on: 16 January 2015

  9. Original research

    A novel rapid (20-minute) IL-6 release assay using blood mononuclear cells of patients with various clinical forms of drug induced skin injuries

    IL-6 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which has many well-defined effects. Its synthesis and release from mononuclear cells of drug-sensitized patients was related before to in vitro drug-allergy diagnostics but ha...

    Joseph M Baló-Banga, Katalin Schweitzer, Susan Lakatos and Sándor Sipka

    World Allergy Organization Journal 2015 8:83

    Published on: 9 January 2015

  10. Research

    Heterogeneous induction of microglia M2a phenotype by central administration of interleukin-4

    Acquisition of the M1 or M2 phenotypes by microglia has been shown to occur during the development of pathological conditions, with M1 activation being widely involved in neurotoxicity in relation with the ana...

    Giovanna Pepe, Giorgia Calderazzi, Marcella De Maglie, Alessandro Maria Villa and Elisabetta Vegeto

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2014 11:211

    Published on: 31 December 2014

  11. Research

    Early immune adaptation in HIV-1 revealed by population-level approaches

    The reproducible nature of HIV-1 escape from HLA-restricted CD8+ T-cell responses allows the identification of HLA-associated viral polymorphisms “at the population level” – that is, via analysis of cross-sect...

    Eric Martin, Jonathan M Carlson, Anh Q Le, Denis R Chopera, Rachel McGovern, Manal A Rahman, Carmond Ng, Heiko Jessen, Anthony D Kelleher, Martin Markowitz, Todd M Allen, M-J Milloy, Mary Carrington, Mark A Wainberg and Zabrina L Brumme

    Retrovirology 2014 11:64

    Published on: 29 August 2014

  12. Review

    Chronic inflammation and cancer: potential chemoprevention through nuclear factor kappa B and p53 mutual antagonism

    Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF- κ B) as a mechanism of host defense against infection and stress is the central mediator of inflammatory responses. A normal (acute) inflammatory response is activated on...

    Srabani Pal, Ashish Bhattacharjee, Asif Ali, Narayan C Mandal, Subhash C Mandal and Mahadeb Pal

    Journal of Inflammation 2014 11:23

    Published on: 9 August 2014

  13. Research

    Th17/Treg ratio derived using DNA methylation analysis is associated with the late phase asthmatic response

    The imbalance between Th17 and Treg cells has been studied in various diseases including allergic asthma but their roles have not been fully understood in the development of the late phase asthmatic response.

    Amrit Singh, Masatsugu Yamamoto, Jian Ruan, Jung Young Choi, Gail M Gauvreau, Sven Olek, Ulrich Hoffmueller, Christopher Carlsten, J Mark FitzGerald, Louis-Philippe Boulet, Paul M O'Byrne and Scott J Tebbutt

    Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology 2014 10:32

    Published on: 24 June 2014

  14. Review

    Allergic sensitization: host-immune factors

    Allergic sensitization is the outcome of a complex interplay between the allergen and the host in a given environmental context. The first barrier encountered by an allergen on its way to sensitization is the ...

    Ronald van Ree, Lone Hummelshøj, Maud Plantinga, Lars K Poulsen and Emily Swindle

    Clinical and Translational Allergy 2014 4:12

    Published on: 15 April 2014

  15. Research

    Vpx complementation of ‘non-macrophage tropic’ R5 viruses reveals robust entry of infectious HIV-1 cores into macrophages

    It is now known that clinically derived viruses are most commonly R5 tropic with very low infectivity in macrophages. As these viruses utilize CD4 inefficiently, defective entry has been assumed to be the domi...

    Petra Mlcochova, Sarah A Watters, Greg J Towers, Mahdad Noursadeghi and Ravindra K Gupta

    Retrovirology 2014 11:25

    Published on: 21 March 2014

  16. Research

    Markers of gut mucosal inflammation and cow’s milk specific immunoglobulins in non-IgE cow’s milk allergy

    Allergy to cow’s milk protein (CMP) may cause gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in the absence of CMP specific IgE. The immunological mechanisms involved in such disease are not fully understood. Therefore we exa...

    Laura Merras-Salmio, Kaija-Leena Kolho, Anna S Pelkonen, Mikael Kuitunen, Mika J Mäkelä and Erkki Savilahti

    Clinical and Translational Allergy 2014 4:8

    Published on: 5 March 2014

  17. Research

    Phase 1 results of safety and tolerability in a rush oral immunotherapy protocol to multiple foods using Omalizumab

    Up to 30% of patients with food allergies have clinical reactivity to more than one food allergen. Although there is currently no cure, oral immunotherapy (OIT) is under investigation. Pilot data have shown th...

    Philippe Bégin, Tina Dominguez, Shruti P Wilson, Liane Bacal, Anjuli Mehrotra, Bethany Kausch, Anthony Trela, Morvarid Tavassoli, Elisabeth Hoyte, Gerri O’Riordan, Alanna Blakemore, Scott Seki, Robert G Hamilton and Kari C Nadeau

    Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology 2014 10:7

    Published on: 27 February 2014

  18. Hypothesis

    Ageing gender-specific "Biomarkers of Homeostasis", to protect ourselves against the diseases of the old age

    Low-grade inflammatory state causes the development of the principal chronic-degenerative pathologies related with ageing. Consequently, it is required a better comprehension of the physiologic origins and the...

    Anna Maria Berghella, Ida Contasta, Giuseppe Marulli, Carlo D’Innocenzo, Ferdinando Garofalo, Francesca Gizzi, Marco Bartolomucci, Giacomo Laglia, Marisa Valeri, Mario Gizzi, Mauro Friscioni, Mario Barone, Tiziana Del Beato, Enzo Secinaro and Patrizia Pellegrini

    Immunity & Ageing 2014 11:3

    Published on: 6 February 2014

  19. Research

    Relationship between vitamin D status and the inflammatory state in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is an immune-inflammatory disease, characterized by acute phase response (APR) and immune activation. There has been increasing evidence showing that vitamin D deficiency/in...

    Alicja Grzanka, Edyta Machura, Bogdan Mazur, Maciej Misiolek, Jerzy Jochem, Jacek Kasperski and Alicja Kasperska-Zajac

    Journal of Inflammation 2014 11:2

    Published on: 3 February 2014

  20. Editorial

    Ready for a world without antibiotics? The Pensières Antibiotic Resistance Call to Action

    Resistance to antibiotics has increased dramatically over the past few years and has now reached a level that places future patients in real danger. Microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoni...

    Jean Carlet, Vincent Jarlier, Stephan Harbarth, Andreas Voss, Herman Goossens and Didier Pittet

    Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control 2012 1:11

    Published on: 14 February 2012

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