Fever is one of the most common symptoms leading to healthcare seeking and hospital admission in lower- and middle-income (LMIC) regions of the globe, including health care settings in sub-Saharan Africa, southern and southeastern Asia, and Central and South America. Many febrile illnesses present with non-specific symptoms and signs, and diagnostic options are often very limited, so that empiric treatment predominates. The current recommendations often result in treatable diseases being left untreated or treated with inappropriate antimicrobials on the one hand, and overtreatment of self-limiting conditions with antimicrobials on the other, with important implications for both patient outcomes and the development of antimicrobial resistance.
Improved diagnosis and treatment of febrile illness matter both for the care of individual patients and for public health goals. There are data gaps in both prevalence and incidence of clinically important infections in febrile patients in much of Africa, Asia, and Central and South America. In addition, antimicrobial use and drivers of treatment decisions are only partially understood. There is a need for information on which to base estimates of burden of disease and to guide therapeutic decisions, development and implementation of diagnostic tools and strategies, design of control measures, and resource allocation. The Febrile Illness Evaluation in a Broad Range of Endemicities study (FIEBRE, https://doi.org/10.17037/PUBS.04652739 ) is one example of current research on this topic.
BMC Infectious Diseases invites manuscripts for this collection, which aims to bring together original research articles and systematic reviews characterizing the clinical diagnostic aspects of febrile illness in LMIC settings. The collection is not open to Case reports.