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Respiratory diseases of swine: co-infections and multifactorial aspects

Respiratory disease is one of the most important cause of economical loss in swine production. It is well known that many pathogens are able to cause infections at the lower respiratory tract, and it is true that a cooperation among some of these pathogens may significantly increase damage and mortality. On the other hand, some of these potential pathogens are normally present in clinically healthy (carrier) animals. Therefore, the definition of “coinfection”, “super-infection” or “mixed infections” is not always clear. Indeed, there is a difference between two pathogens working together through known and proved mechanisms to increase damage to the host and just the simultaneous presence of two pathogens by chance, but probably without any cause-effect.  


The objective of this series is to critically discuss what is really known about coinfections but with an interpretative analysis of available data and their biological significance. This series also includes reviews focused on key respiratory diseases associated with multifactorial respiratory disease of swine; for instance, discussions of viruses considered part of the Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex, such as swine Influenza A Virus (swIAV), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), and Porcine CircoVirus type 2 (PCV2) as well as bacteria like Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Bordetella bronchiseptica. 


Edited by Prof Marcelo Gottschalk

Veterinary Research invites you to submit articles on the topic of co-infections. To submit your manuscript, please use our online submission system, and indicate in your cover letter that you would like the manuscript to be considered for this article collection.


For more information about the journal and how to submit your article to Veterinary Research, please see our submission guidelines. Any accepted articles will appear together on this collection page, as and when the publications are ready. 


To read our related collections on co-infections in animals, please see here.


  1. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is one of the primary agents involved in the porcine respiratory disease complex, economically one of the most important diseases in pigs worldwide. The pathogen adhere...

    Authors: Dominiek Maes, Filip Boyen, Bert Devriendt, Peter Kuhnert, Artur Summerfield and Freddy Haesebrouck

    Citation: Veterinary Research 2021 52:67

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  2. Streptococcus suis is one of the most important bacterial swine pathogens affecting post-weaned piglets, causing mainly meningitis, arthritis and sudden death. It not only results in severe economic losses but al...

    Authors: Milan R. Obradovic, Mariela Segura, Joaquim Segalés and Marcelo Gottschalk

    Citation: Veterinary Research 2021 52:49

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  3. Understudied, coinfections are more frequent in pig farms than single infections. In pigs, the term “Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex” (PRDC) is often used to describe coinfections involving viruses such as...

    Authors: Georges Saade, Céline Deblanc, Juliette Bougon, Corinne Marois-Créhan, Christelle Fablet, Gaël Auray, Catherine Belloc, Mily Leblanc-Maridor, Carl A. Gagnon, Jianzhong Zhu, Marcelo Gottschalk, Artur Summerfield, Gaëlle Simon, Nicolas Bertho and François Meurens

    Citation: Veterinary Research 2020 51:80

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  4. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most significant and economically important infectious diseases affecting swine worldwide and can predispose pigs to secondary bacterial infec...

    Authors: Lenka Kavanová, Katarína Matiašková, Lenka Levá, Hana Štěpánová, Kateřina Nedbalcová, Ján Matiašovic, Martin Faldyna and Jiří Salát

    Citation: Veterinary Research 2017 48:28

    Content type: Research Article

    Published on:

  5. In developed countries, most of hepatitis E human cases are of zoonotic origin. Swine is a major hepatitis E virus (HEV) reservoir and foodborne transmissions after pork product consumption have been described...

    Authors: Morgane Salines, Elodie Barnaud, Mathieu Andraud, Florent Eono, Patricia Renson, Olivier Bourry, Nicole Pavio and Nicolas Rose

    Citation: Veterinary Research 2015 46:55

    Content type: Research article

    Published on: