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Cancer immunotherapy

In recent years, cancer immunotherapy has achieved some of the most transformational successes in improving the lives of patients with cancer. Despite this unprecedented progress, we are also experiencing new challenges in tailoring these agents to maximize clinical benefit to the right patients.

In order to select patients for appropriate single-agent and combination cancer immuno-therapeutic clinical trials, it is becoming increasingly important to develop and validate technically robust, biologically relevant, and clinically useful individual biomarkers, multiplex biomarker panels, and/or immune gene/molecular signatures utilizing NGS. With the approval of a number of immunohistochemical assays for PD-L1, microsatellite instability, and tumor mutation burden as predictors of response to immunotherapies in specific patient populations with various cancers, there is an urgent need to standardize and adopt these methodologies in the clinic, so that we can rapidly advance the field of personalized immuno-oncology-pathology in order to maximize benefits to our patients.

In practice, we need well-integrated, multi-disciplinary teamwork among pre-clinical scientists, tumor biologists, pathologists, oncologists, image analysts, statisticians, and bioinformaticians working closely with the biomarker teams in academia, industry, and diagnostic companies to fully characterize and match the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) in a patient’s tumor with the available single-agent or combinatorial immunotherapies. This will also include determination of the status of various biologic pathways of sensitivity or resistance to immuno-therapies, the status of tumor immune cells, and the upregulation or downregulation of the various other mechanisms of tumor progression and resistance to targeted and immuno-therapies.

In order to bring together the most important basic, translational, and clinical advances in the highly complex and rapidly evolving fields of cancer immunotherapy, biomarkers, and diagnostic research and practice, Cancer Cell International has launched this thematic series, “Cancer immunotherapy,” which will comprise of reviews, original research articles, commentaries, and editorials, with the ultimate goal to provide our global audience with a highly informative collection of articles on some of the most impactful advances being made at the forefront of immuno-oncology biomarkers and diagnostics across the globe. 

Aejaz Nasir, MD, M.Phil, FCAP
Associate Editor, Cancer Cell International

New Content Item © © Amornrat Phuchom / Getty Images / iStock

  1. Pancreatic cancer is a rare but fatal disease. Patients present advanced disease due to the lack of or typical symptoms when the tumor is still localized. A high-quality image processing system has been in pra...

    Authors: Fan Xu, Min Huang, Yun Bai, Xueshi Yin, Jingzhe Yan, Fangfang Liu, Jie Chen and Xiechuan Weng
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2022 22:383
  2. In recent decades, the advent of immune-based therapies, most notably Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy has revolutionized cancer treatment. The promising results of numerous studies indicate that...

    Authors: Maysoon Al-Haideri, Santalia Banne Tondok, Salar Hozhabri Safa, Ali Heidarnejad maleki, Samaneh Rostami, Abduladheem Turki Jalil, Moaed E. Al-Gazally, Fahad Alsaikhan, Jasur Alimdjanovich Rizaev, Talar Ahmad Merza Mohammad and Safa Tahmasebi
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2022 22:365
  3. We identified here mechanism by which hAECs exert their anti-cancer effects. We showed that vaccination with live hAEC conferred effective protection against murine colon cancer and melanoma but not against br...

    Authors: Mohammad-Reza Bolouri, Roya Ghods, Kayhan Zarnani, Sedigheh Vafaei, Reza Falak and Amir-Hassan Zarnani
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2022 22:329
  4. Ferroptosis have been implicated in tumorigenesis, tumor progression, and chemo- and immuno-therapy in cirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), indicating its association with matrix stiffness and clinical be...

    Authors: Shunxi Wang, Long Chen and Wanqian Liu
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2022 22:318
  5. Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) has revolutionized cancer therapy. However, therapeutic targeting of inhibitory T cell receptors such as PD-1 not only initiates a broad immune response ag...

    Authors: Simon Heumos, Sandra Dehn, Konstantin Bräutigam, Marius C. Codrea, Christian M. Schürch, Ulrich M. Lauer, Sven Nahnsen and Michael Schindler
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2022 22:311
  6. Thymosin family genes (TMSs), biologically important peptides with diverse intracellular and extracellular functions, have been shown to promote the progression of multiple cancers. However, multiomics charact...

    Authors: Ye Xiong, Yanhua Qi, Ziwen Pan, Shaobo Wang, Boyan Li, Bowen Feng, Hao Xue, Rongrong Zhao and Gang Li
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2022 22:294
  7. Perinatal blood including umbilical cord blood and placental blood are splendid sources for allogeneic NK cell generation with high cytotoxicity of combating pathogenic microorganism and malignant tumor. Despi...

    Authors: Haibo Gao, Min Liu, Yawei Zhang, Leisheng Zhang and Baoguo Xie
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2022 22:291
  8. The p21-activated kinase (PAK) family (PAKs) plays a key role in the formation and development of human tumors. However, a systematic analysis of PAKs in human cancers is lacking and the potential role of PAKs...

    Authors: Kunjian Lei, Min Luo, Zewei Tu, Shigang Lv, Junzhe Liu, Chuandong Gong, Minhua Ye, Miaojing Wu, Yilei Sheng, Xiaoyan Long, Jingying Li, Xingen Zhu and Kai Huang
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2022 22:275
  9. Marine seaweeds are important sources of drugs with several pharmacological characteristics. The present study aims to evaluate the antitumor and antitumor immunological potentials of the extracts from the bro...

    Authors: Mostafa M. El-Sheekh, Mohamed Nassef, Eman Bases, Shimaa El Shafay and Rania El-shenody
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2022 22:267
  10. Glioblastoma belongs to the most aggressive type of cancer with a low survival rate that is characterized by the ability in forming a highly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Intercellular communicatio...

    Authors: Mohsen Karami Fath, Jalil Azami, Alireza Masoudi, Reza Mosaddeghi Heris, Elnaz Rahmani, Fatemeh Alavi, Armina Alagheband Bahrami, Zahra Payandeh, Bahman Khalesi, Masoomeh Dadkhah, Navid Pourzardosht and Vahideh Tarhriz
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2022 22:262
  11. With the combination therapy of PD-1/PD-L1 antibody and antiangiogenic drugs used widely in clinic, a novel method to estimate the prognosis of patients is needed. We aimed to develop a nomogram to examine pro...

    Authors: Hao Huang, Yao Chen, Xuezi Weng, Sirou Li, Lin Zhang and Peisong Chen
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2022 22:261
  12. In addition to being novel biomarkers for poor cancer prognosis, members of Lymphocyte antigen-6 (Ly6) gene family also play a crucial role in avoiding immune responses to tumors. However, it has not been poss...

    Authors: Francesca Pia Caruso, Mario Rosario D’Andrea, Luigi Coppola, Matteo Landriscina, Valentina Condelli, Luigi Cerulo, Guido Giordano, Almudena Porras and Massimo Pancione
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2022 22:253
  13. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer death in female. Triple-negative breast cancer has a more aggressive proliferation and a poorer clinical diagnosi...

    Authors: Hamid Bakherad, Fahimeh Ghasemi, Maryam Hosseindokht and Hamed Zare
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2022 22:245
  14. Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality worldwide, therefore it is considered a major health concern. Breast cancer is the most frequent type of cancer which affects women on a global scale. Various cur...

    Authors: Vamika Karn, Sandhya Sandhya, Wayne Hsu, Deepak Parashar, Himanshu Narayan Singh, Niraj Kumar Jha, Saurabh Gupta, Navneet Kumar Dubey and Sanjay Kumar
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2022 22:234
  15. The critical role of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) in cellular sulfhydryl redox homeostasis and inflammasome activation is already widely known, however, no pan-cancer analysis is currently available.

    Authors: Xuxue Guo, Mei Huang, Haonan Zhang, Qianhui Chen, Ying Hu, Yan Meng, Changjie Wu, Chenge Tu, Yongfeng Liu, Aimin Li, Qingyuan Li, Peirong Zhou and Side Liu
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2022 22:230
  16. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third cause of cancer death in the world that arises from the glandular and epithelial cells of the large intestine, during a series of genetic or epigenetic alternations. Recent...

    Authors: Shirin Azizidoost, Farhoodeh Ghaedrahmati, Omid Anbiyaee, Riyadh Ahmad Ali, Maryam Cheraghzadeh and Maryam Farzaneh
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2022 22:209
  17. The role of circular RNAs (circRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) in osteosarcoma (OS) development has not been fully elucidated. Further, the contribution of the immune response to OS progression is not well define...

    Authors: Zhihao Chen, Liubing Li, Ziyuan Li, Xi Wang, Mingxiao Han, Zongshuai Gao, Min Wang, Gangfeng Hu, Xiaolu Xie, Hong Du, Zonggang Xie and Haifang Zhang
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2022 22:78
  18. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is one of the most lethal malignancies in the urinary system and the existing immunotherapy has not achieved satisfactory outcomes. Therefore, this study aims at establi...

    Authors: Daojia Miao, Jian Shi, Zhiyong Xiong, Wen Xiao, Xiangui Meng, Qingyang Lv, Kairu Xie, Hongmei Yang and Xiaoping Zhang
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2022 22:66
  19. N6-Methyladenosine (m6A), the most abundant internal modification associated with eukaryotic mRNAs, has emerged as a dynamic regulatory mechanism controlling the expression of genes involved in many physiologica....

    Authors: Shanshan Wang, Wei Lv, Tao Li, Shubing Zhang, Huihui Wang, Xuemei Li, Lianzi Wang, Dongyue Ma, Yan Zang, Jilong Shen, Yuanhong Xu and Wei Wei
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2022 22:48
  20. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is a dynamic and reversible internal RNA structure of eukaryotic mRNA. YTH domain family 2 (YTHDF2), an m6A-specific reader YTH domain family, plays fundamental roles in several types ...

    Authors: Peng Xu, Kang Hu, Ping Zhang, Zhi-Gang Sun and Nan Zhang
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2022 22:13

    The Correction to this article has been published in Cancer Cell International 2023 23:179

  21. In humans, riboflavin must be obtained through intestinal absorption because it cannot be synthesized by the body. SLC52A2 encodes a membrane protein belonging to the riboflavin transporter protein family and ...

    Authors: Lilong Zhang, Man Li, Zhoujun Cui, Dongqi Chai, Yongjun Guan, Chen Chen and Weixing Wang
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2022 22:8
  22. Previous studies indicated CRNDE to have a pivotal part within tumorigenesis. Notwithstanding, precise details on CRNDE activities within NPC are still uncertain. The investigation described in this article se...

    Authors: Sichen Ge, Chengyi Jiang, Min Li, Zhongqiang Cheng and Xiaojia Feng
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2021 21:650
  23. Increasing evidence indicates that the tumor microenvironment appears to play an increasingly important role in cancer progression and therapeutic resistance. Several types of cells within the tumor stroma had...

    Authors: Xiuyun Xuan, Chunxia Tian, Mengjie Zhao, Yanhong Sun and Changzheng Huang
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2021 21:595
  24. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma(PTCL) is a group of lymphoproliferative tumors originated from post-thymic T cells or mature natural killer (NK) cells. It shows highly aggressive clinical behaviour, resistance to c...

    Authors: Yan Zhang, Yuanfei Shi, Huafei Shen, Lihong Shou, Qiu Fang, Xiaolong Zheng, Mingyu Zhu, Xin Huang, Jiansong Huang, Li Li, De Zhou, Lixia Zhu, Jingjing Zhu, Xiujin Ye, Jie Jin and Wanzhuo Xie
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2021 21:573
  25. The epigenetic regulator additional sex combs-like 1 (ASXL1) is an adverse prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the mutational spectrum and prognostic factors of ASXL1-mutated (ASXL1+) AML ...

    Authors: Yi Fan, Linxiao Liao, Yajun Liu, Zhenzhen Wu, Chong Wang, Zhongxing Jiang, Shujuan Wang and Yanfang Liu
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2021 21:526
  26. Comprehensive analysis of omics data, such as genome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and interactome, is a crucial technique for elucidating the complex mechanism of cancer onset and progression. Recentl...

    Authors: Ichidai Tanaka, Taiki Furukawa and Masahiro Morise
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2021 21:454
  27. Taking advantage of nanobodies (Nbs) in immunotherapy, we investigated the cytotoxicity of Nb-based chimeric antigen receptor T cells (Nb CAR-T) against lymphoma cells.

    Authors: Hongxia Wang, Liyan Wang, Yanning Li, Guangqi Li, Xiaochun Zhang, Dan Jiang, Yanting Zhang, Liyuan Liu, Yuankui Chu and Guangxian Xu
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2021 21:450
  28. Protopine is an isoquinoline alkaloid that possesses various biological activities including the anti-tumour activity. However, the effects of protopine on liver carcinoma cells are still elusive. The aim of t...

    Authors: Chunhui Nie, Bei Wang, Baoquan Wang, Ning Lv, Rui Yu and Enfan Zhang
    Citation: Cancer Cell International 2021 21:396