Skip to main content

Biomarkers in Malaria

An individual infected with malaria parasites carries various biochemical molecules, some unique and not found in uninfected individuals, some not unique but significantly more abundant in certain forms of the infection; such molecules are known as ‘biomarkers’. While many biomarkers have been described in cancer research, where some have already a place in routine patient care, the field is still in its infancy for malaria. The study of biomarkers has been boosted in recent years by major technological advances, such as SELDI-mass spectrometry and the data from various ‘-omics’, but the flurry of publications shows that this is still ‘looking for a needle in a haystack’.  

The detection in patient bodily fluids of parasite-related biomarkers, that is molecules produced by the parasite at different stages of its life cycle, could help improving diagnostics; the detection of mosquito-related biomarkers could be used to measure exposure in the context of epidemiological studies.  By far the most important area of research is the detection of host-related biomarkers, produced by the host in response to the infection or the disease process. The identification of biomarkers that can distinguish between different forms of the disease, e.g. symptomatic versus asymptomatic, or uncomplicated versus severe, has the potential to provide better prognostic indicators and to guide treatment. While this research has identified various acute-phase reactants, markers of endothelial or kidney function, and immune mediators, all of which have provided useful insight into the pathophysiology of malaria, it has not yet produced any useful clinical tool.

This Thematic Series of Malaria Journal, aims to address the various issues related to the identification of malaria biomarkers. It highlights recent research published in the journal, together with invited Opinion papers to stimulate further research. 

If you are interested in including your research in this series, Malaria Journal is currently welcoming submissions.

  1. Malaria related mortality is associated with significant deregulation of host inflammatory factors such as interferon-inducible protein 10, a member of the CXC or α-subfamily (CXCL10), and host angiogenic fact...

    Authors: Cecilia Elorm Lekpor, Felix Botchway, Kwadwo Asamoah Kusi, Andrew A. Adjei, Michael D. Wilson, Jonathan K. Stiles and Nana O. Wilson
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2022 21:220
  2. Plasmodium vivax contributes to over 70% malaria burden in Pakistan, but limited data exists on various aspects including genetic diversity of the parasite as compared to other parts of the world. Since the infor...

    Authors: Zainab Bibi, Anam Fatima, Rehana Rani, Ayesha Maqbool, Samea Khan, Shumaila Naz and Shahid Waseem
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:112
  3. This study aimed at detecting PfHRP2 and pLDH malaria antigens in urine and salivary specimens of suspected malaria patients using RDT kits, and identifying factors influencing the detection of these antigens.

    Authors: Enoch Aninagyei, Joseph Abraham, Paul Atiiga, Shadrach Duodu Antwi, Stephen Bamfo and Desmond Omane Acheampong
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2020 19:349
  4. Despite potent anti-malarial treatment, mortality rates associated with severe falciparum malaria remain high. To attempt to improve outcome, several trials have assessed a variety of potential adjunctive ther...

    Authors: Rosauro Varo, Clara Erice, Sydney Johnson, Quique Bassat and Kevin C. Kain
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2020 19:268
  5. Cerebral malaria (CM), is a life-threatening childhood malaria syndrome with high mortality. CM is associated with impaired consciousness and neurological damage. It is not fully understood, as yet, why some c...

    Authors: Samuel Eneọjọ Abah, Florence Burté, Steven A. Howell, Ikeoluwa Lagunju, Wuraola A. Shokunbi, Mats Wahlgren, Olugbemiro Sodeinde, Biobele J. Brown, Anthony A. Holder and Delmiro Fernandez-Reyes
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2020 19:167
  6. Heterogeneity in the immune response to parasite infection is mediated in part by differences in host genetics, gender, and age group. In infants and young children, ongoing immunological maturation often resu...

    Authors: Paul L. Maurizio, Hubaida Fuseini, Gerald Tegha, Mina Hosseinipour and Kristina De Paris
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:205
  7. In some African cities, urban malaria is a threat to the health and welfare of city dwellers. To improve the control of the disease, it is critical to identify neighbourhoods where the risk of malaria transmis...

    Authors: Dipomin F. Traoré, André B. Sagna, Akré M. Adja, Dounin D. Zoh, Kouassi A. Adou, Kouassi N. Lingué, Issa Coulibaly, N’Cho Bertin Tchiekoi, Serge B. Assi, Anne Poinsignon, Mamadou Dagnogo and Franck Remoue
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2019 18:68
  8. The intimate interaction between the pathophysiology of the human host and the biology of the Plasmodium falciparum parasite results in a wide spectrum of disease outcomes in malaria. Development of severe diseas...

    Authors: Philippa Reuterswärd, Sofia Bergström, Judy Orikiiriza, Elisabeth Lindquist, Sven Bergström, Helene Andersson Svahn, Burcu Ayoglu, Mathias Uhlén, Mats Wahlgren, Johan Normark, Ulf Ribacke and Peter Nilsson
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2018 17:426
  9. Febrile symptoms in children are a leading cause of health-care seeking behaviour worldwide. The majority of febrile illnesses are uncomplicated and self-limited, without the need for referral or hospital admi...

    Authors: Chloe R. McDonald, Andrea Weckman, Melissa Richard-Greenblatt, Aleksandra Leligdowicz and Kevin C. Kain
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2018 17:353
  10. Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe neurological complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. A number of pathological findings have been correlated with pediatric CM including sequestration, platelet accumulat...

    Authors: Ehab M. Moussa, Honglei Huang, Marie L. Thézénas, Roman Fischer, Abhinay Ramaprasad, Fatou Sisay-Joof, Muminatou Jallow, Arnab Pain, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Benedikt M. Kessler and Climent Casals-Pascual
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2018 17:337
  11. Plasmodium 18S rRNA is a biomarker used to monitor blood-stage infections in malaria clinical trials. Plasmodium sporozoites also express this biomarker, and there is conflicting evidence about how long sporozoit...

    Authors: Sean C. Murphy, Andrew S. Ishizuka, Zachary P. Billman, Tayla M. Olsen, Annette M. Seilie, Ming Chang, Nahum Smith, Vorada Chuenchob, Sumana Chakravarty, B. Kim Lee Sim, Stefan H. I. Kappe, Stephen L. Hoffman and Robert A. Seder
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2018 17:275
  12. Currently available diagnostic techniques of Plasmodium falciparum infection are not optimal for non-invasive, population-based screening for malaria. It was hypothesized that a mass spectrometry-based metabolomi...

    Authors: Salah Abdelrazig, Catharine A. Ortori, Gail Davey, Wakgari Deressa, Dhaba Mulleta, David A. Barrett, Alemayehu Amberbir and Andrew W. Fogarty
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2017 16:229
  13. Plasmodium falciparum infection can lead to several clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic infections (AM) and uncomplicated malaria (UM) to potentially fatal severe malaria...

    Authors: Rachida Tahar, Catarina Albergaria, Neil Zeghidour, Vincent Foumane Ngane, Leonardo K. Basco and Christian Roussilhon
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2016 15:337
  14. Severe and cerebral malaria are associated with endothelial activation. Angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1) and angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) are major regulators of endothelial activation and integrity. The aim of this study was...

    Authors: Andrea L Conroy, Erin I Lafferty, Fiona E Lovegrove, Srivicha Krudsood, Noppadon Tangpukdee, W Conrad Liles and Kevin C Kain
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2009 8:295