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Alternative interventions to facilitate malaria elimination

It is now well-established that well-coordinated interventions are essential for malaria elimination, including integrated vector control management (with insecticide-treated bed nets and indoor residual spraying), reliable detection of cases, effective drugs for prevention and treatment, together with community involvement and enthusiasm to adhere to the interventions. After initial success, most programmes have reached stagnation, with progressive loss of earlier gains. The pressure needs to be kept full on, not only on policy-makers and sponsors to maintain and amplify the global effort in the long term, but also on the research community to continue developing new tools. Obviously, an effective vaccine (or vaccines) would be a powerful addition to the arsenal, and this is much needed, but vaccines have proven to be a difficult target to achieve. While waiting for the elusive vaccine, many have been looking for feasible alternatives and inventive new approaches adapted to specific situations or capable of solving specific problems. Such alternatives, big and small, have incremental value and in terms of elimination, every little helps. 

This Thematic series in Malaria Journal will collect published papers on innovative approaches and invite new contributions to stimulate further research.

  1. Intermittent Preventive Treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) is a malaria control strategy consisting of the administration of an anti-malarial drug alongside routine immunizations. So far, this is being imp...

    Authors: Augustin E. Fombah, Haily Chen, Kwabena Owusu-Kyei, Llorenç Quinto, Raquel Gonzalez, Julian Williams, Mireia LLach Berne, Myrte Wassenaar, Abubakarr Jalloh, Joe-Henry C. Sunders, Maximo Ramirez, Cesc Bertran-Cobo, Francisco Saute, Didier K. Ekouevi, Valérie Briand, Anitta R. Y. Kamara…
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2023 22:145
  2. Health facilities’ availability of malaria diagnostic tests and anti-malarial drugs (AMDs), and the correctness of treatment are critical for the appropriate case management, and malaria surveillance programs....

    Authors: Hosein Azizi, Elham Davtalab Esmaeili and Fariba Abbasi
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2023 22:127
  3. New anti-malarial drugs are needed urgently to address the increasing challenges of drug-resistant falciparum malaria. Two rhinacanthin analogues containing a naphthoquinone moiety resembling atovaquone showed...

    Authors: Suwanna Chaorattanakawee, Varakorn Kosaisavee, Watanyu Bunsermyos, Chaiyawat Aonsri, Witcha Imaram, Kanokon Suwannasin, Chanon Kunasol, Chatchadaporn Thamnurak, Nonlawat Boonyalai, David Saunders, Arjen M. Dondorp, Mathirut Mungthin and Mallika Imwong
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2023 22:105
  4. Malaria disproportionately affects low-income households in rural communities where poor housing is common. Despite evidence that well-constructed and mosquito-proofed houses can reduce malaria risk, housing i...

    Authors: Ramadhani M. Bofu, Ellen M. Santos, Betwel J. Msugupakulya, Najat F. Kahamba, Joseph D. Swilla, Rukiyah Njalambaha, Ann H. Kelly, Javier Lezaun, Nicola Christofides, Fredros O. Okumu and Marceline F. Finda
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2023 22:69
  5. Until recently, due to widespread prevalence of molecular markers associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ) resistance in east and southern Africa, seasonal malaria chemoprevention (S...

    Authors: Anthony Nuwa, Kevin Baker, Craig Bonnington, Musa Odongo, Tonny Kyagulanyi, John Baptist Bwanika, Sol Richardson, Jane Nabakooza, Jane Achan, Richard Kajubi, David Salandini Odong, Maureen Nakirunda, Godfrey Magumba, Geofrey Beinomugisha, Madeleine Marasciulo-Rice, Hilda Abio…
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2023 22:63
  6. Community engagement (CE) plays a critical role in malaria control and elimination. CE approaches vary substantially, with more participatory programmes requiring higher levels of adaptive management. This stu...

    Authors: Kevin Bardosh, Luccene Desir, Lorence Jean, Sarah Yoss, Brianna Poovey, Andrew Nute, Madsen Valerie Beau de Rochars, Marc-Aurèle Telfort, Fabiola Benoit, Ginette Chery, Marie Carmelle Charlotin and Gregory S. Noland
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2023 22:47
  7. Early-evening and outdoor-biting mosquitoes may compromise the effectiveness of frontline malaria interventions, notably insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-cost i...

    Authors: Arnold S. Mmbando, Winifrida P. Mponzi, Halfan S. Ngowo, Khamis Kifungo, Robert Kasubiri, Rukiyah M. Njalambaha, Tegemeo Gavana, Alvaro E. Eiras, Elis P. A. Batista, Marceline F. Finda, Onyango P. Sangoro and Fredros O. Okumu
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2023 22:43
  8. Malaria morbidity and mortality increase in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) may be the consequence of the low utilization rate of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) resulting from poor complianc...

    Authors: Gillon Ilombe, Thérèse Mpiempie, Gauthier Mesia, Junior R. Matangila, Aimée M. Lulebo, Vivi Maketa, Baby Mabanzila, Nicole M. Muela, Flory T. Muanda, Sylvie Linsuke, Jean-Pierre van Geertruyden and Pascal Lutumba
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2023 22:35
  9. Mass screening and treatment (MSAT) for malaria elimination lacks an ideal diagnostic tool to allow sensitive and affordable test of the target population in the field. This study evaluated whether Capture and...

    Authors: Xiao-dong Sun, Ya-ling Zhao, Zu-rui Lin, Ye Zhao, Yao-wu Zhou, Shi-gang Li, Xiang-rui Guo, Peng Tian, Kai-xia Duan, Chun-li Ding, Qi-yan Chen, Yuan Sui, Shen-ning Lu, Chris Cotter, Duo-quan Wang and Zhi Zheng
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2023 22:21
  10. Despite the scale-up of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying, the bulk of malaria transmission in western Kenya still occurs indoors, late at night. House improvement is a potential long-term ...

    Authors: Bernard Abong’o, John E. Gimnig, Diana Omoke, Eric Ochomo and Edward D. Walker
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2022 21:377
  11. Malaria remains the biggest public health challenge globally, and Ghana is among the 15 highest burden malaria countries in the world, with 2% of global malaria cases and 3% deaths in 2019. This study sought t...

    Authors: Seth Kwaku Afagbedzi, Yakubu Alhassan and Chris Guure
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2022 21:370
  12. The rate of decay of the biological efficacy of insecticides used for indoor residual spraying (IRS) is an important factor when making decisions on insecticide choice for national malaria control programmes. ...

    Authors: Delenasaw Yewhalaw, Eba Alemayehu Simma, Endalew Zemene, Kassahun Zeleke and Teshome Degefa
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2022 21:364
  13. Insecticidal mosquito-proof netting screens could combine the best features of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), the two most important front line vector control interventions...

    Authors: Rogath Msoffe, Matilda Hewitt, John P. Masalu, Marcelina Finda, Deogratius R. Kavishe, Fredros O. Okumu, Emmanuel A. Mpolya, Emmanuel W. Kaindoa and Gerry F. Killeen
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2022 21:318
  14. The alertness and practice of health care providers (HCPs) in the correct management of suspected malaria (CMSM) (vigilance) is a central component of malaria surveillance following elimination, and it must be...

    Authors: Hosein Azizi, Reza Majdzadeh, Ayat Ahmadi, Ahmad Raeisi, Maryam Nazemipour, Mohammad Ali Mansournia and Allan Schapira
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2022 21:304
  15. In 2020–2021, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) were distributed nationwide in Uganda during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 12 districts to evaluate the impact of the cam...

    Authors: Jaffer Okiring, Samuel Gonahasa, Martha Nassali, Jane F. Namuganga, Irene Bagala, Catherine Maiteki‑Sebuguzi, Jimmy Opigo, Isaiah Nabende, Joanita Nangendo, Jane Kabami, Isaac Ssewanyana, Steven M. Kiwuwa, Joaniter I. Nankabirwa, Grant Dorsey, Jessica Briggs, Moses R. Kamya…
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2022 21:293
  16. The preventive and curative strategies of malaria are based on promoting the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and treating confirmed cases with artemisinin-based combination therapy. These strateg...

    Authors: El Hadji Diouf, Mbaye Diouf, Constentin Dieme, Isabel Swamidoss, El Hadji Malick Ngom, Massila Wagué Senghor, Modou Mbaye, Abdoulaye Konaté, Youssouph Coulibaly, Dome Tine, Ibrahima Dia, Ellen Marie Dotson, Ousmane Faye and Lassana Konaté
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2022 21:210
  17. In Burkina Faso, malaria remains the first cause of medical consultation and hospitalization in health centres. First-line case management of malaria in the country’s health facilities is based on the use of a...

    Authors: Denise Hien, Jean Moise Tanga Kaboré, Mohamadou Siribié, Issiaka Soulama, Nouhoun Barry, Adama Baguiya, Alfred Bewendtaoré Tiono, André-Marie Tchouatieu and Sodiomon Bienvenu Sirima
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2022 21:202
  18. Across the Greater Mekong Subregion, malaria remains a dangerous infectious disease, particularly for people who visit forested areas where residual transmission continues. Because vector control measures offe...

    Authors: Monnaphat Jongdeepaisal, Panarasri Khonputsa, Orathai Prasert, Suphitsara Maneenet, Kulchada Pongsoipetch, Anchalee Jatapai, Chawarat Rotejanaprasert, Prayuth Sudathip, Richard J. Maude and Christopher Pell
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2022 21:47
  19. Despite significant decline in malarial incidence and mortality in countries across the Greater Mekong Subregion, the disease remains a public health challenge in the region; transmission continues mainly amon...

    Authors: Monnaphat Jongdeepaisal, Soulixay Inthasone, Panarasri Khonputsa, Vilayvone Malaphone, Kulchada Pongsoipetch, Tiengkham Pongvongsa, Mayfong Mayxay, Keobouphaphone Chindavongsa, Christopher Pell and Richard J. Maude
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2022 21:8
  20. Although considerable success in reducing the incidence of malaria has been achieved in Brazil in recent years, an increase in the proportion of cases caused by the harder-to-eliminate Plasmodium vivax parasite c...

    Authors: Cleber Matos de Morais, Kayo Henrique de Carvalho Monteiro, Jose Diego Brito-Sousa, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Vanderson Souza Sampaio, Patricia Takako Endo and Judith Kelner
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:431
  21. Supplementary tools are required to address the limitations of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), which are currently the core vector control methods against malaria in Africa....

    Authors: Emmanuel W. Kaindoa, Arnold S. Mmbando, Ruth Shirima, Emmanuel E. Hape and Fredros O. Okumu
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:415
  22. Insecticides are currently the main tools used to reduce the transmission of malaria; therefore, the development of resistance to insecticides in malaria vectors is of major concern for malaria control. The re...

    Authors: Abdoulaye Niang, Simon P. Sawadogo, Abdoul A. Millogo, Nwamaka O. Akpodiete, Roch K. Dabiré, Frederic Tripet and Abdoulaye Diabaté
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:346
  23. Malaria is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in African countries. It is one of the leading causes of hospital visits and hospitalization in pediatric wards for children under 5 years old. I...

    Authors: Gaëtan Moukoumbi Lipenguet, Edgard Brice Ngoungou, Euloge Ibinga, Jean Engohang-Ndong and Jérôme Wittwer
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:334
  24. MOSKI KIT® is a fun tool designed to interest children for prevention and management of malaria. This study was carried out with the objective to assess the short- and long-term impacts of this tool on the kno...

    Authors: Isaac Akhénaton Manga, Aïssatou Gaye, Aliou Dia, Ekoue Kouevidjin, Maria Rosa Dos Reis, Aboubakry Sadikh Niang, Amy Ndao Fall, Christelle Maitre Anquetil and Jean Louis Abdourahim Ndiaye
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:310
  25. In malaria endemic regions, intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) is recommended for all pregnant women during prenatal consultation, from the fourth month of pregnancy up ...

    Authors: Oumar Sangho, Moctar Tounkara, Lillian Joyce Whiting-Collins, Madeleine Beebe, Peter J. Winch and Seydou Doumbia
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2021 20:231
  26. Reactive case detection (RACD) and foci investigation are key strategies in malaria elimination and prevention of its re-establishment. They are a key part of surveillance that has been recommended by the Worl...

    Authors: Ruwanthi Perera, Amandhi Caldera and A. Rajitha Wickremasinghe
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2020 19:401
  27. Following malaria elimination, Sri Lanka was free from indigenous transmission for six consecutive years, until the first introduced case was reported in December 2018. The source of transmission (index case) ...

    Authors: Manonath M. Marasinghe, Vissundara M. Karunasena, Arundika S. Seneratne, Hema D. B. Herath, Deepika Fernando, Rajitha Wickremasinghe, Kamini N. Mendis and Dewanee Ranaweera
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2020 19:346
  28. Malaria control in Tanzania currently relies primarily on long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying, alongside effective case management and behaviour change communication. This study explore...

    Authors: Marceline F. Finda, Nicola Christofides, Javier Lezaun, Brian Tarimo, Prosper Chaki, Ann H. Kelly, Ntuli Kapologwe, Paul Kazyoba, Basiliana Emidi and Fredros O. Okumu
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2020 19:164
  29. Cambodia targets malaria elimination by 2025. Rapid elimination will depend on successfully identifying and clearing malaria foci linked to forests. Expanding and maintaining universal access to early diagnosi...

    Authors: Dysoley Lek, James J. Callery, Chea Nguon, Mark Debackere, Siv Sovannaroth, Rupam Tripura, Marius Wojnarski, Patrice Piola, Soy Ty Khean, Kylie Manion, Sokomar Nguon, Amber Kunkel, Lieven Vernaeve, Thomas J. Peto, Emily Dantzer, Chan Davoeung…
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2020 19:151
  30. Outdoor and early evening mosquito biting needs to be addressed if malaria elimination is to be achieved. While indoor-targeted interventions, such as insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying, rem...

    Authors: Onyango P. Sangoro, Tegemeo Gavana, Marceline Finda, Winfrida Mponzi, Emmanuel Hape, Alex Limwagu, Nicodem J. Govella, Prosper Chaki and Fredros O. Okumu
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2020 19:148
  31. Despite huge investments and implementation of effective interventions for malaria, progress has stalled, with transmission being increasingly localized among difficult-to-reach populations and outdoor-biting ...

    Authors: Roly Gosling, John Chimumbwa, Petrina Uusiku, Sara Rossi, Henry Ntuku, Kelly Harvard, Chris White, Allison Tatarsky, Daniel Chandramohan and Ingrid Chen
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2020 19:125
  32. Residents of malaria-endemic communities spend several hours outdoors performing different activities, e.g. cooking, story-telling or eating, thereby exposing themselves to potentially-infectious mosquitoes. T...

    Authors: John P. Masalu, Marceline Finda, Gerry F. Killeen, Halfan S. Ngowo, Polius G. Pinda and Fredros O. Okumu
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2020 19:109
  33. Molecular detection of low-density Plasmodium falciparum infections is essential for surveillance studies conducted to inform malaria control strategies in close-to-elimination settings. Molecular monitoring of r...

    Authors: Benjamin Grossenbacher, Aurel Holzschuh, Natalie E. Hofmann, Kali Abdullah Omar, Logan Stuck, Bakar Shariff Fakih, Abdullah Ali, Joshua Yukich, Manuel W. Hetzel and Ingrid Felger
    Citation: Malaria Journal 2020 19:50