Israel Journal of Health Policy Research considers articles on prioritization in health care. Priority setting in health care has become more explicit worldwide over the last two decades. Israel provides an important laboratory for international learning, having one of the most explicit and accountable systems for priority setting. The country also provides relevant lessons regarding resource allocation among health and other sectors such as defence. This thematic series in IJHPR takes advantage of these characteristics, featuring articles that analyze the priority setting process in Israel, both within the health system and regarding allocations to health in the overall public budgetary context.