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Interventions in primary health care to improve outcome and equity in health

Edited by Dr Leiyu Shi, Dr Ana Lorena Ruano and Dr John Furler​​​​​​​
International Journal for Equity in Health

Primary care is essential and refers to first-contact, continuous, comprehensive, and coordinated care provided to populations undifferentiated by gender, disease, or organ system. It has been demonstrated that effective primary care is associated with improved access to health care services, reduced hospitalizations, cost effectiveness and enhanced equity. In recent years, many countries, organizations, communities, as well as world agencies have implemented primary care reforms and interventions to improve healthcare access, quality, health outcome and equity in health. Successful stories, as well as lessens learned, through these experiences could benefit the world community.

This collection of articles has not been sponsored and articles have undergone the journal’s standard peer review process. The Guest Editors declare no competing interests.

View all collections published in International Journal for Equity in Health


  1. Research

    Geographic accessibility to primary healthcare centers in Mozambique

    Access to healthcare services has an essential role in promoting health equity and quality of life. Knowing where the places are and how much of the population is covered by the existing healthcare network is ...

    António dos Anjos Luis and Pedro Cabral

    International Journal for Equity in Health 2016 15:173

    Published on: 18 October 2016

  2. Research

    Teen clinics: missing the mark? Comparing pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections rates among enrolled and non-enrolled adolescents

    In Manitoba, Canada, school-based clinics providing sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents have been implemented to address high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and pregnancies.

    Souradet Y. Shaw, Colleen Metge, Carole Taylor, Mariette Chartier, Catherine Charette, Lisa Lix, Rob Santos, Joykrishna Sarkar, Nathan C. Nickel, Elaine Burland, Dan Chateau, Alan Katz, Marni Brownell and Patricia J. Martens

    International Journal for Equity in Health 2016 15:95

    Published on: 21 June 2016

  3. Commentary

    Managing menstruation in the workplace: an overlooked issue in low- and middle-income countries

    The potential menstrual hygiene management barriers faced by adolescent girls and women in workplace environments in low- and middle-income countries has been under addressed in research, programming and polic...

    Marni Sommer, Sahani Chandraratna, Sue Cavill, Therese Mahon and Penelope Phillips-Howard

    International Journal for Equity in Health 2016 15:86

    Published on: 6 June 2016

  4. Research

    The utilization and barriers of Pap smear among women with visual impairment

    Many evidences illustrate that the Pap smear screening successfully reduces if the cervical cancer could be detected and treated sufficiently early. People with disability were higher comorbidity prevalence, a...

    Wen-Hui Fang, Chia-Feng Yen, Jung Hu, Jin-Ding Lin and Ching-Hui Loh

    International Journal for Equity in Health 2016 15:65

    Published on: 12 April 2016

  5. Research

    The impact of a bundled policy intervention on improving the performance of rural healthcare in China

    The strategy of health policy has been changed for improving the performances to meeting the increasing healthcare demands. However, limited evidences were found to prove that the bundled payment was valid for...

    Jian Wu, Xiaofang Li, Yao Song, Hui Shao, Qian Shi, Doudou Qin, Shuangbao Xie and Lizheng Shi

    International Journal for Equity in Health 2016 15:46

    Published on: 10 March 2016

  6. Research

    Actions on social determinants and interventions in primary health to improve mother and child health and health equity in Morocco

    Over the last two decades, Moroccan authorities launched a number of actions and strategies to enhance access to health services and improve health outcomes for the whole population in general and for mother a...

    Wiam Boutayeb, Mohamed Lamlili, Abdellatif Maamri, Souad Ben El Mostafa and Abdesslam Boutayeb

    International Journal for Equity in Health 2016 15:19

    Published on: 2 February 2016

  7. Research

    Towards elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Ghana: an analysis of national programme data

    Despite global scale up of interventions for Preventing Mother to child HIV Transmissions (PMTCT), there still remain high pediatric HIV infections, which result from unequal access in resource-constrained set...

    P. Dako-Gyeke, B. Dornoo, S. Ayisi Addo, M. Atuahene, N. A. Addo and A. E. Yawson

    International Journal for Equity in Health 2016 15:5

    Published on: 13 January 2016

  8. Research

    Community health centers and primary care access and quality for chronically-ill patients – a case-comparison study of urban Guangdong Province, China

    Reform of the health care system in urban areas of China has prompted concerns about the utilization of Community Health Centers (CHC). This study examined which of the dominant primary care delivery models, i...

    Leiyu Shi, De-Chih Lee, Hailun Liang, Luwen Zhang, Marty Makinen, Nathan Blanchet, Ruth Kidane, Magnus Lindelow, Hong Wang and Shaolong Wu

    International Journal for Equity in Health 2015 14:90

    Published on: 14 December 2015

  9. Study protocol

    EQUIP Healthcare: An overview of a multi-component intervention to enhance equity-oriented care in primary health care settings

    The primary health care (PHC) sector is increasingly relevant as a site for population health interventions, particularly in relation to marginalized groups, where the greatest gains in health status can be ac...

    Annette J. Browne, Colleen Varcoe, Marilyn Ford-Gilboe and C. Nadine Wathen

    International Journal for Equity in Health 2015 14:152

    Published on: 14 December 2015

  10. Research

    The impact of primary healthcare reform on equity of utilization of services in the province of Quebec: a 2003–2010 follow-up

    In 2003, the Quebec government made important changes in its primary healthcare (PHC) system. This reform included the creation of new models of PHC, Family Medicine Groups (e.g. multidisciplinary health teams...

    Marie-Jo Ouimet, Raynald Pineault, Alexandre Prud’homme, Sylvie Provost, Michel Fournier and Jean-Frédéric Levesque

    International Journal for Equity in Health 2015 14:139

    Published on: 14 December 2015

  11. Research

    Integrated care delivery and health care seeking by chronically-ill patients – a case-control study of rural Henan province, China

    This study examined the impact of an Integrated Care Delivery intervention on health care seeking and outcomes for chronically-ill patients in Henan province, China.

    Leiyu Shi, Marty Makinen, De-Chih Lee, Ruth Kidane, Nathan Blanchet, Hailun Liang, Jinghua Li, Magnus Lindelow, Hong Wang, Shuangbao Xie and Jian Wu

    International Journal for Equity in Health 2015 14:98

    Published on: 14 December 2015

  12. Review

    Integrating traditional indigenous medicine and western biomedicine into health systems: a review of Nicaraguan health policies and miskitu health services

    Throughout the world, indigenous peoples have advocated for the right to retain their cultural beliefs and traditional medicine practices. In 2007, the more than 370 million people representing 5000 distinct g...

    Heather Carrie, Tim K. Mackey and Sloane N. Laird

    International Journal for Equity in Health 2015 14:129

    Published on: 14 December 2015

    The Erratum to this article has been published in International Journal for Equity in Health 2016 15:20

  13. Research

    Contribution of primary care to health: an individual level analysis from Tibet, China

    There have been significant improvements in health outcomes in Tibet, health disparities between Tibet and the rest of China has been greatly reduced. This paper tests whether there was a positive association ...

    Wenhua Wang, Leiyu Shi, Aitian Yin, Zongfu Mao, Elizabeth Maitland, Stephen Nicholas and Xiaoyun Liu

    International Journal for Equity in Health 2015 14:107

    Published on: 14 December 2015

  14. Research

    Does a pay-for-performance program for primary care physicians alleviate health inequity in childhood vaccination rates?

    Childhood vaccination rates in Manitoba populations with low socioeconomic status (SES) fall significantly below the provincial average. This study examined the impact of a pay-for-performance (P4P) program ca...

    Alan Katz, Jennifer Emily Enns, Dan Chateau, Lisa Lix, Doug Jutte, Jeanette Edwards, Marni Brownell, Colleen Metge, Nathan Nickel, Carole Taylor and Elaine Burland

    International Journal for Equity in Health 2015 14:114

    Published on: 14 December 2015

  15. Research

    Trends and outcomes in the utilization of laparoscopic appendectomies in a low-income population in Taiwan from 2003 to 2011

    Numerous epidemiological studies have compared outcomes between laparoscopic appendectomies (LA) and open appendectomies (OA); however, few studies have assessed the efficacy of LA specifically in a low-income...

    Kai-Biao Lin, K. Robert Lai, Nan-Ping Yang, Ke-Shou Wu, Hsien-Wei Ting, Ren-Hao Pan and Chien-Lung Chan

    International Journal for Equity in Health 2015 14:100

    Published on: 24 October 2015

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