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Inequities in health and health systems in Latin America and the Caribbean

© SL_Photography / Getty Images / iStockEdited by: Daniela Rodríguez, Ana Lorena Ruano, Pablo Gaitán Rossi, and Daniel Maceira

This article collection in International Journal for Equity in Health showcases research on inequities in health and health systems in Latin America and the Caribbean. Through it, we seek to contribute to the understanding and development of pro-equity policies that can strengthen national health systems and improve access to quality health services for the under-served on the road to achieving universal health coverage.

This collection of articles has not been sponsored and articles have undergone the journal’s standard peer review process. The Guest Editors declare no competing interests.

  1. The COVID-19 pandemic has been felt acutely in Latin America with several countries having among the highest numbers of SARS-CoV-2 cases and related deaths. Individuals living with underlying health conditions...

    Authors: Meredith H. Kruse, Alessandra Durstine and Dabney P. Evans
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2022 21:45
  2. During the first decade of the current century, Latin American countries have shown high and consistent economic growth rates, increasing per capita GDP and reducing poverty. Social indicators improved in even...

    Authors: Daniel Maceira, Luisa Brumana and Joaquín González Aleman
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2022 21:29
  3. Despite efforts to extend Universal Health Coverage in Colombia, rural and remote populations still face significant challenges in accessing equitable health services. Social innovation has been growing in Col...

    Authors: Martha Milena Bautista-Gómez and Lindi van Niekerk
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2022 21:23

    The Correction to this article has been published in International Journal for Equity in Health 2022 21:53

  4. The present study analyzes inequalities in catastrophic health expenditures in conflict-affected regions of Meta, Colombia and socioeconomic factors contributing to the existence and changes in catastrophic ex...

    Authors: Sebastián León-Giraldo, Juan Sebastián Cuervo-Sánchez, Germán Casas, Catalina González-Uribe, Noemi Kreif, Oscar Bernal and Rodrigo Moreno-Serra
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:217
  5. Gender-based discrimination remains a substantial barrier to health care access and HIV prevention among transgender women in Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gender-bas...

    Authors: Beo Oliveira Leite, Danielle Souto de Medeiros, Laio Magno, Francisco Inácio Bastos, Carolina Coutinho, Ana Maria de Brito, Maria Socorro Cavalcante and Inês Dourado
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:199
  6. Active transportation is a crucial sort of physical activity for developing sustainable environments and provides essential health benefits. This is particularly important in Latin American countries because t...

    Authors: Gerson Ferrari, Juan Guzmán-Habinger, Javiera L. Chávez, André O. Werneck, Danilo R. Silva, Irina Kovalskys, Georgina Gómez, Attilio Rigotti, Lilia Yadira Cortés, Martha Cecilia Yépez García, Rossina G. Pareja, Marianella Herrera-Cuenca, Clemens Drenowatz, Carlos Cristi-Montero, Adilson Marques, Miguel Peralta…
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:190
  7. Information on socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity over time is sparse in low- to middle-income countries. In this study, we examined trends in physical activity educational inequalities in adults ...

    Authors: Gerson Ferrari, Pedro Toteff Dulgheroff, Rafael M. Claro, Leandro F. M. Rezende and Catarina Machado Azeredo
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:188
  8. In 2008, Ecuador started a national health reform based on the principles of Alma Ata to achieve Universal Health Coverage. While coverage indicators have increased, a systematic assessment of the impact of th...

    Authors: Sergio E Flores Jimenez and Miguel San Sebastián
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:169
  9. Latin America, with its culturally and ethnically diverse populations, its burgeoning economies, high levels of violence, growing political instability, and its striking levels of inequality, is a region that ...

    Authors: Ana Lorena Ruano, Daniela Rodríguez, Pablo Gaitán Rossi and Daniel Maceira
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:94
  10. While equity is a central concern in promoting Universal Health Coverage (UHC), the impact of social exclusion on equity in UHC remains underexplored. This paper examines challenges faced by socially excluded ...

    Authors: Jeannie Samuel, Walter Flores and Ariel Frisancho
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2020 19:216
  11. Participatory governance is about state and society jointly responsible for political decisions and services. The origins and trajectory of participatory governance initiatives are determined by the socio-poli...

    Authors: Qamar Mahmood and Carles Muntaner
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2020 19:173
  12. Costa Rica, similar to many other Latin American countries is undergoing population aging at a fast pace. As a result of the epidemiological transition, the prevalence of diabetes has increased. This condition...

    Authors: Carolina Santamaría-Ulloa and Melina Montero-López
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2020 19:172
  13. Since the early 1990s, Colombia has made great strides in extending healthcare coverage to its population. In order to measure the impact of these efforts, it is important to assess whether the introduction of...

    Authors: Jorge Garcia-Ramirez, Zlatko Nikoloski and Elias Mossialos
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2020 19:168
  14. People living a trans-life require access to equitable healthcare services, policies and research that address their needs. However, trans people have experienced different forms of violence, discrimination, s...

    Authors: Mariana Calderón-Jaramillo, Ángel Mendoza, Natalia Acevedo, Luz Janeth Forero-Martínez, Sandra Marcela Sánchez and Juan Carlos Rivillas-García
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2020 19:148
  15. Social and community participation is a fundamental component of the development of renewed primary healthcare (PHC). With the recognition of health as a right, such participation is a significant part of the ...

    Authors: Laura Catalina Blandón-Lotero and Marta Cecilia Jaramillo-Mejía
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2020 19:129
  16. In 2007 Uruguay began a reform in the health sector towards the construction of a National Integrated Health System (SNIS), based on public insurance with private and public provision. The main objective of th...

    Authors: Cecilia González and Patricia Triunfo
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2020 19:127
  17. Designing public health policies to target the needs of specific places requires highly granular data. When geographic health statistics from official sources are absent or lacking in spatial detail, Sanitary ...

    Authors: Germán Federico Rosati, Tomás Alberto Olego and H. Antonio Vazquez Brust
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2020 19:204
  18. Four Andean countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru introduced national health-focused conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs in the 2000s. This study probes whether policymakers in these countries...

    Authors: Mathieu J. P. Poirier
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2020 19:125
  19. Brazil conducts many health surveys to provide estimates by national level, macro-regions, states, metropolitan regions and capitals. However, estimates for smaller areas are lacking due to their high cost. Th...

    Authors: Regina Tomie Ivata Bernal, Quéren Hapuque de Carvalho, Jill P. Pell, Alastair H. Leyland, Ruth Dundas, Mauricio Lima Barreto and Deborah Carvalho Malta
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2020 19:124
  20. With the turn of the century, most countries in Latin America witnessed an increased concern with universalism and redistribution. In the health sector, this translated into a wide range of reforms to advance ...

    Authors: Pamela Bernales-Baksai
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2020 19:106
  21. Understanding health financing reforms and means is key to evaluate how maternal health has improved. Problems related to health financing policies are contributing to inadequate quality of care and inequitabl...

    Authors: Juan Carlos Rivillas, Raúl Devia-Rodriguez and Marie-Gloriose Ingabire
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2020 19:98
  22. Socioeconomic status is associated with cesarean section (CS). Maternal height, however, may be another related factor to CS. In Guatemala, a quarter of women between 15 and 49 years of age are shorter than 14...

    Authors: Evelyn Roldán, Laura M Grajeda and Wilton Pérez
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2020 19:95
  23. The high fragmentation and decentralization in the provision of health care services that characterizes Argentina’s health system, as well as the economic and social inequalities, challenge the achievement of ...

    Authors: Alfredo Palacios, Natalia Espinola and Carlos Rojas-Roque
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2020 19:67
  24. The ways of life in the Amazon are diverse and not widely known. In addition, social inequities, large geographic distances and inadequate health care network noticeably limit access to health services in rura...

    Authors: Luiza Garnelo, Rosana Cristina Pereira Parente, Maria Laura Rezende Puchiarelli, Priscilla Cabral Correia, Matheus Vasconcelos Torres and Fernando José Herkrath
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2020 19:54
  25. Given the persistence of Indigenous health inequities across national contexts, many countries have adopted strategies to improve the health of Indigenous peoples. Governmental recognition of the unique health...

    Authors: Angeline Ferdinand, Michelle Lambert, Leny Trad, Leo Pedrana, Yin Paradies and Margaret Kelaher
    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2020 19:47