Edited by: Dr Florence Fouque, Dr Abraham Peter Mnzava, Dr Raman Velayudhan, Prof. Xiao-Nong Zhou
Challenges on outbreak control of the vector-borne diseases have been paid much attention at global level, due to rapidly increase of insecticide resistance in vectors. Needs on developing better strategies to mitigate these challenges have been widely discussed for the global actions, such as plan and implement insecticide resistance management strategies, ensure proper entomological and resistance monitoring and data management, develop innovative vector control tools, fill gaps in knowledge on mechanism of insecticide resistance and impact of management practices, ensure that enabling mechanise in advocacy, human and financial resources are in place.
Vector control through insecticides products is as old as the discovery of the transmission of pathogens causing human and animal diseases was done by tiny insects and ticks. The first insecticides were natural products but even in the early times, some resistance to these products was observed either by physiological and/or behavioural adaptation of the vectors. Then, the era of the synthetized chemicals from the mid-twentieth century allowed large use of these products with some extraordinary successes in the control of vectors and vector-borne diseases such as the eradication of malaria in all Mediterranean countries and most of the Caribbean and Asian ones. However, this success was followed by strong environmental concerns and the emergence of resistances. The new chemical products now available are environmentally more safe but are still facing the vector resistance problems.
Thus, the thematic series on the topic of “Insecticide Resistance in Vectors” offer unique opportunity to present the human-animal-vector interacted knowledge and technology gaps in vector-borne diseases. In particularly, this special issue focus on but not limit to the following five areas: (i) impact assessment of mosquito resistance to the disease control programme, (ii) standardized tools for the monitoring mosquito resistance in different settings, (iii) resistance mechanism in different species of mosquito to various classes of insecticides, (iv) interaction between insecticides and vector competence at genetic level, (v) capacity building involved in both research and management of insecticide resistance, etc. Other important topics this special issue would like to address are the several aspects of resistance which may include vectors physiology, genetics and/or behaviour, but also human and societal changes that are making vectors resistant and the influence of the environment of the development of resistances. Agricultural practices and urban evolutions are in this context specially emphasized. The One Health approach where vector control, animal and human health are considered in their natural environment as a whole can also address this problem and propose new research directions and new strategies for the stakeholders.
It is expected this thematic series will trig more stakeholders and practitioners to work on evidence-based research against vector-borne diseases, in particular in the fields of innovative vector control tools and better management of insecticide resistance.