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CNS Fluid and Solute Movement: Physiology, Modelling and Imaging

Sharp et al., 2019

In health, solute and fluid movement within the cerebrospinal and interstitial fluid spaces of the brain is crucial for neural and overall brain function. In addition, it has important implications for drug delivery to the brain and for neurological diseases. Advances in imaging and modelling have provided new insights into such movement (e.g. the proposed glymphatic system and dural lymphatics) and into the importance of fluid for CNS physiology and immunology. However, they have also engendered much controversy.

We have collected together a series of papers, published by Fluids and Barriers of the CNS, which include both experimental and modelling studies that address various aspects of fluid and solute movement into, out of, and within the CNS.

This collection of articles has not been sponsored and articles have undergone the journal’s standard peer-review process.

  1. Content type: Research

    Influx and clearance of substances in the brain parenchyma occur by a combination of diffusion and convection, but the relative importance of these mechanisms is unclear. Accurate modeling of tracer distributi...

    Authors: Matteo Croci, Vegard Vinje and Marie E. Rognes

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:32

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  2. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Solutes can enter and leave gray matter in the brain by perivascular routes. The glymphatic hypothesis supposes that these movements are a consequence of inward flow along periarterial spaces and an equal outw...

    Authors: Stephen B. Hladky and Margery A. Barrand

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:24

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    The original article was published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:6

    The Letter to the Editor Response to this article has been published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:23

  3. Content type: Letter to the Editor Response

    In our work, “Analysis of Convective and Diffusive Transport in the Brain Interstitium”, published in this journal (2019, 16:6), we estimate the interstitial superficial velocity by comparison of transport model ...

    Authors: Lori Ray, Jeffrey J. Iliff and Jeffrey J. Heys

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:23

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    The original article was published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:24

  4. Content type: Research

    Periarterial spaces (PASs) are annular channels that surround arteries in the brain and contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): a flow of CSF in these channels is thought to be an important part of the brain’s syst...

    Authors: Jeffrey Tithof, Douglas H. Kelley, Humberto Mestre, Maiken Nedergaard and John H. Thomas

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:19

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  5. Content type: Research

    Altered flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the subarachnoid space (SAS) is connected to brain, but also optic nerve degenerative diseases. To overcome the lack of suitable in vitro models that faithfully...

    Authors: Albert Neutzner, Laura Power, Markus Dürrenberger, Hendrik P. N. Scholl, Peter Meyer, Hanspeter E. Killer, David Wendt and Corina Kohler

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:17

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  6. Content type: Research

    As an alternative to advection, solute transport by shear-augmented dispersion within oscillatory cerebrospinal fluid flow was investigated in small channels representing the basement membranes located between...

    Authors: M. Keith Sharp, Roxana O. Carare and Bryn A. Martin

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:13

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  7. Content type: Research

    Fluid dynamics of the craniospinal system are complex and still not completely understood. In vivo flow and pressure measurements of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are limited. Whereas in silico modeling can be...

    Authors: Anne Benninghaus, Olivier Balédent, Armelle Lokossou, Carlos Castelar, Steffen Leonhardt and Klaus Radermacher

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:11

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  8. Content type: Research

    Respiration-induced pressure changes represent a powerful driving force of CSF dynamics as previously demonstrated using flow-sensitive real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of the present st...

    Authors: Gökmen Aktas, Jost M. Kollmeier, Arun A. Joseph, Klaus-Dietmar Merboldt, Hans-Christoph Ludwig, Jutta Gärtner, Jens Frahm and Steffi Dreha-Kulaczewski

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:10

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  9. Content type: Research

    Fluid homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS) is essential for normal neurological function. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the subarachnoid space and interstitial fluid circulation in the CNS parenchyma...

    Authors: Joel A. Berliner, Thomas Woodcock, Elmira Najafi, Sarah J. Hemley, Magdalena Lam, Shaokoon Cheng, Lynne E. Bilston and Marcus A. Stoodley

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:7

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  10. Content type: Research

    Despite advances in in vivo imaging and experimental techniques, the nature of transport mechanisms in the brain remain elusive. Mathematical modelling verified using available experimental data offers a power...

    Authors: Lori Ray, Jeffrey J. Iliff and Jeffrey J. Heys

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:6

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    The Letter to the Editor to this article has been published in Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:24

  11. Content type: Research

    This study investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hydrodynamics using cine phase-contrast MRI in the cerebral aqueduct and the prepontine cistern between three distinct groups: pre-shunt normal pressure hydroc...

    Authors: Robert B. Hamilton, Fabien Scalzo, Kevin Baldwin, Amber Dorn, Paul Vespa, Xiao Hu and Marvin Bergsneider

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2019 16:2

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  12. Content type: Research

    The roles of the choroid plexus (CP) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production have drawn increasing attention in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research. Specifically, studies document markedly decreased CSF product...

    Authors: Shawn Kant, Edward G. Stopa, Conrad E. Johanson, Andrew Baird and Gerald D. Silverberg

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:34

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  13. Content type: Review

    This review considers efflux of substances from brain parenchyma quantified as values of clearances (CL, stated in µL g−1 min−1). Total clearance of a substance is the sum of clearance values for all available ro...

    Authors: Stephen B. Hladky and Margery A. Barrand

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:30

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  14. Content type: Research

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of abnormally high intracranial pressure with an unknown etiology. The objective of this study is to characterize craniospinal compliance and measure t...

    Authors: Monica D. Okon, Cynthia J. Roberts, Ashraf M. Mahmoud, Andrew N. Springer, Robert H. Small, John M. McGregor and Steven E. Katz

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:21

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  15. Content type: Research

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is thought to flow into the brain via perivascular spaces around arteries, where it mixes with interstitial fluid. The precise details concerning fluid outflow remain controversial. A...

    Authors: Shinuo Liu, Magdalena A. Lam, Alisha Sial, Sarah J. Hemley, Lynne E. Bilston and Marcus A. Stoodley

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2018 15:13

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  16. Content type: Research

    The spinal subarachnoid space (SSS) has a complex 3D fluid-filled geometry with multiple levels of anatomic complexity, the most salient features being the spinal cord and dorsal and ventral nerve rootlets. An...

    Authors: Lucas R. Sass, Mohammadreza Khani, Gabryel Connely Natividad, R. Shane Tubbs, Olivier Baledent and Bryn A. Martin

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:36

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  17. Content type: Research

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) does not only ascertain morphological features, but also measures physiological properties such as fluid velocity or pressure gradient. The purpose of this study was to investi...

    Authors: Ken Takizawa, Mitsunori Matsumae, Naokazu Hayashi, Akihiro Hirayama, Satoshi Yatsushiro and Kagayaki Kuroda

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:29

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  18. Content type: Research

    A classification of cardiac- and respiratory-driven components of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) motion has been demonstrated using echo planar imaging and time-spatial labeling inversion pulse techniques of magnet...

    Authors: Ken Takizawa, Mitsunori Matsumae, Saeko Sunohara, Satoshi Yatsushiro and Kagayaki Kuroda

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:25

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  19. Content type: Research

    Postural changes are related to changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. While sitting up leads to a decrease in cranial CSF pressure, it also causes shifts in the craniospinal CSF volume and compliance ...

    Authors: Manuel Gehlen, Vartan Kurtcuoglu and Marianne Schmid Daners

    Citation: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 2017 14:5

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