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Medical statistics

Edited by Dr Jonathan Ball, Dr Viv Bewick and Dr Liz Cheek

This series of articles in Critical Care has not been sponsored. All articles have undergone the journal’s standard peer review process overseen by the Series Editor, with final decisions made by the Editor in Chief. The Series Editor and Editor in Chief declare no competing interests.

  1. Content type: Review

    This review introduces logistic regression, which is a method for modelling the dependence of a binary response variable on one or more explanatory variables. Continuous and categorical explanatory variables a...

    Authors: Viv Bewick, Liz Cheek and Jonathan Ball

    Citation: Critical Care 2005 9:112

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  2. Content type: Review

    This review introduces methods of analyzing data arising from studies where the response variable is the length of time taken to reach a certain end-point, often death. The Kaplan–Meier methods, log rank test ...

    Authors: Viv Bewick, Liz Cheek and Jonathan Ball

    Citation: Critical Care 2004 8:389

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  3. Content type: Review

    Relative risk and odds ratio have been introduced in earlier reviews (see Statistics reviews 3, 6 and 8). This review describes the calculation and interpretation of their confidence intervals. The different c...

    Authors: Viv Bewick, Liz Cheek and Jonathan Ball

    Citation: Critical Care 2004 8:287

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  4. Content type: Review

    This review introduces nonparametric methods for testing differences between more than two groups or treatments. Three of the more common tests are described in detail, together with multiple comparison proced...

    Authors: Viv Bewick, Liz Cheek and Jonathan Ball

    Citation: Critical Care 2004 8:196

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  5. Content type: Review

    This review introduces one-way analysis of variance, which is a method of testing differences between more than two groups or treatments. Multiple comparison procedures and orthogonal contrasts are described a...

    Authors: Viv Bewick, Liz Cheek and Jonathan Ball

    Citation: Critical Care 2004 8:130

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  6. Content type: Review

    This review introduces methods for investigating relationships between two qualitative (categorical) variables. The χ2 test of association is described, together with the modifications needed for small samples. T...

    Authors: Viv Bewick, Liz Cheek and Jonathan Ball

    Citation: Critical Care 2003 8:46

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  7. Content type: Review

    The present review introduces methods of analyzing the relationship between two quantitative variables. The calculation and interpretation of the sample product moment correlation coefficient and the linear re...

    Authors: Viv Bewick, Liz Cheek and Jonathan Ball

    Citation: Critical Care 2003 7:451

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  8. Content type: Review

    The present review introduces nonparametric methods. Three of the more common nonparametric methods are described in detail, and the advantages and disadvantages of nonparametric versus parametric methods in g...

    Authors: Elise Whitley and Jonathan Ball

    Citation: Critical Care 2002 6:509

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  9. Content type: Review

    The present review introduces the commonly used t-test, used to compare a single mean with a hypothesized value, two means arising from paired data, or two means arising from unpaired data. The assumptions und...

    Authors: Elise Whitley and Jonathan Ball

    Citation: Critical Care 2002 6:424

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  10. Content type: Review

    The present review introduces the notion of statistical power and the hazard of under-powered studies. The problem of how to calculate an ideal sample size is also discussed within the context of factors that ...

    Authors: Elise Whitley and Jonathan Ball

    Citation: Critical Care 2002 6:335

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  11. Content type: Review

    The previous review in this series introduced the notion of data description and outlined some of the more common summary measures used to describe a dataset. However, a dataset is typically only of interest f...

    Authors: Elise Whitley and Jonathan Ball

    Citation: Critical Care 2002 6:143

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Critical Care 2002 7:8

  12. Content type: Review

    The present review is the first in an ongoing guide to medical statistics, using specific examples from intensive care. The first step in any analysis is to describe and summarize the data. As well as becoming...

    Authors: Elise Whitley and Jonathan Ball

    Citation: Critical Care 2001 6:66

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