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Biomechanical comparison between single-bundle and double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendon under cyclic loading condition

Shuya Nohmi, Yasuyuki Ishibashi*, Eiichi Tsuda, Yuji Yamamoto, Harehiko Tsukada and Satoshi Toh

Author Affiliations

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8562, Japan

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Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology 2012, 4:23  doi:10.1186/1758-2555-4-23

Published: 2 July 2012



The purpose of this study was to compare the anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructed-knee between single-bundle and double-bundle ACL reconstruction under cyclic loading.


Single-bundle and double-bundle reconstructions of the knee were performed sequentially in randomized order on the same side using eight human amputated knees. After each reconstruction, the reconstructed-knee was subjected to 500-cycles of 0 to 100-N anterior tibial loads using a material testing machine. The ATT before and after cyclic loading and “laxity increase”, which indicated a permanent elongation of the graft construct, was also determined.


The ATT after cyclic loading increased in both single-bundle and double-bundle reconstruction techniques compared to that without cyclic loading. Changes in ATT before and after cyclic loading were 3.9 ± 0.9 mm and 2.9 ± 0.6 mm respectively, and were significantly different. Laxity increase was also significantly different (4.3 ± 0.9 mm and 3.2 ± 0.8 mm respectively). Although no graft rupture or graft fixation failure was found during cyclic loading, the graft deviated into an eccentric position within the tunnel.


Although ATT was significantly increased in both single-bundle and double-bundle reconstruction with hamstring tendon after cyclic loading test, there was significant difference. Double-bundle reconstruction might be superior to prevent increasing ATT under cyclic loading. Deformation of hamstring tendon after cyclic loading might result in deterioration of knee stability after ACL reconstruction, and is one of disadvantages of soft tissue graft.