Nasal swabs collected from left and right nostrils for influenza viral load monitoring displayed considerable sampling variability, highlighting the need for standardized sampling procedures.
Vineeta Bal and colleagues detect signs of ageing in mouse CD4 T cells as they patrol the body in readiness to participate in antigen-specific immune responses. Older cells have lower CD4 levels and a hyporesponsive phenotype associated with increased activation of the DUSP phosphatase and reactive oxygen species, suggesting the possible use of small molecule inhibitors and anti-oxidants to increase vaccination efficiency in the elderly.
MudS, a microtubule binding protein isoform, appears to be a key regulator in production of binucleate cells, by triggering cells to go through mitosis without cytokinesis, during development of the Drosophila male accessory gland.
Farmer and non-farmer clones of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum do not differ in their ability to consume novel toxic strains of E. coli with increased numbers of bacteria or amoebae improving their respective likelihood of competitive victory over the other.
August and colleagues examine the factors leading to their transhiatal esophagectomy program achieving low mortality rates. The findings show that focus on avoiding "failure to rescue" and a surgeon-driven commitment to quality improvement may lead to low mortality rates for this surgical procedure.
Chromosomal aberrations underlie genetic disease in roughly 15% of patients with multiple congenital abnormalities and/or mental retardation. A new review discusses current methods for breakpoint identification and their impact on the interpretation of chromosome abmormalities.
In critically ill adult patients, percutaneous tracheotomy techniques can be performed faster than a surgical tracheostomy and also reduce stoma inflammation and infection.
In a systematic review, evidence for the protective effects of influenza vaccination in patients with end-stage renal disease is limited, highlighting the need for more studies to assess vaccine effectiveness in this at-risk population.
Population-based data from 30 sub-Saharan African countries provides country-level prevalence estimates of tobacco use, demonstrating varying use of smoking and smokeless tobacco that are linked to social determinants such as gender, age and education.
Analysis of cancer incidence data in England reveals that risk of breast and gynaecological cancers varies by ethnic group but groups typically grouped together are not homogenous with regards to their cancer risk.
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