Estimating growth rates from fossil bones is difficult, depending on counting lines of arrested growth or measuring density; a comparison of dinosaur bones suggests that, due to variation between bones and individuals, both methods can be unreliable.
The wings of Kallima butterflies mimic the patterns of leaves to a remarkable degree; this adaptation seems to have evolved not through large evolutionary leaps, as some suspected, but gradually over millions of years.
A new database, the most comprehensive and thorough analysis of mitochondrial gene content to date, has implications for the deep phylogeny of eukaryotes and provides an important resource for researchers in genome evolution.
Survival analysis methodologies have been adapted to genomic analysis to link molecular information with clinical outcomes. Chen et al. provide an overview of currently available software, web applications and databases specifically developed for survival analysis in genomics research.
Job Dekker proposes two ways the mammalian genome folds during the cell cycle, through insights obtained with chromosome conformation capture technology.
In a study of three large cohorts and a meta-analysis, total dairy intake is not associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) incidence, but increased yogurt consumption is linked to reduced risk of T2D, suggesting that yogurt could have a protective effect.
Prof Brian Timms reviews the biology of Australian halophilic Anostracans, an order of crustaceans of which very little is known about their physiology and ecology.
In refugees from 90 camps, there are low rates of primary care visits for emotional disorders and substance use compared with epilepsy, despite contrasting prevalence rates, suggesting these problems may be unattended by refugee health services.
Sessa and colleagues report on the new vascular connector (NVC), a hypothetical design of a vascular device, for creation and maintenance of sutureless vascular anastomosis. The authors claim that introduction of the safe and reliable NVC would shorten operation times and prevent operative and post-operative complications.
Multi-drug resistance is associated with a three-fold increase in the risk of hospital mortality in sepsis due to Gram-negative bacteremia
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