Using massive parallel sequencing of DNA from dogs and wolves, the authors have found 155 new genetic variants of canine Toll-like receptors, primary sensors of pathogens in the body.
Analysis of giraffe mitochondrial DNA supports the existence of an ancient rift valley that once separated populations in southern Africa and created the genetically distinct subspecies seen today; results with implications for both giraffe conservation and taxonomy.
In this forum article, experts discuss non-communicable diseases (NCDs) that, despite causing significant health issues, do not receive the attention they deserve, highlighting the need for higher global health priority to reduce the burden of disease.
Radiographic density of computed tomography (CT) images is correlated with the presence of severe cerebral edema and can differentiate this condition from mild traumatic brain injury, providing a novel approach to detect cerebral edema.
Explaining why ethics and informed consent processes for genomic studies need to be more transparent in the case of vulnerable African populations.
Epigenetic modifications such as histone and DNA methylation are essential for silencing pluripotency genes. A critical step is identified for the self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic stem cells.
Oral phenobarbital and imepitoin are amongst likely effective anti-epileptic drugs for the treatment of canine idiopathic epilepsy; however, poor reporting in literature preclude definitive recommendations prompting a need for greater blinded RCTs evaluating the efficacy of these drugs.
Low alcohol consumption without heavy drinking reduces ischemic heart disease (IHD) risk, but episodic and heavy drinking have no beneficial effect, suggesting that average alcohol consumption measures are not sufficient to predict IHD risk.
COPD symptoms are more common in the early morning and day versus the night and over half of the 727 patients studied experienced symptoms during a 24 hour period. These outcomes should be considered when managing the disease.
Despite the known harms of excessive alcohol consumption, it is considered an acceptable risk; Jürgen Rehm et al. explore this issue, finding that alcohol’s special status may be due to overestimation of its health benefits when consumed in moderation.
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