There is a log-linear relationship of caries to sugar intake from 0% of energy intake (E) to 10%E sugar at where a costly burden of caries is induced, suggesting public health goals should set sugar intakes ideally less than 3%.
Peter Carmeliet reviews how metabolic pathways in endothelial cells regulate angiogenesis during cancer development, providing a hugely useful resource for the cancer metabolism field
Bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) from patients with Z variant alpha-1 antitrypsin (Z-AAT) deficiency, express and secrete Z-AAT and its polymers, suggesting that these cells are involved in the pathogenesis of emphysema and BEC dysfunction.
The Y-chromosome can be used for paternal demographic and lineage dating, however owing to naturally occuring mutations, results can be incaccurate. Looking into a solution for one of the biggest problems in Y-chromosome phylogenetic studies.
Eileen White discusses how cancer cells use autophagy to survive in low nutrient conditions and how new drugs targeting this process can be used to treat cancer.
Whole exome and whole genome sequencing has revealed specific mutations for various cancers, and so Eleftherios Diamandis suggests that the combination of genomics and proteomics may help to identify and develop clinically useful biomarkers.
Repression of mobile genetic elements is essential for the survival of germ cells. A new pathway for silencing LINE-1 elements is described by Donal O'Carroll and colleagues.
George Weinstock and colleagues analyze the double-stranded DNA virus genomes lurking in the wealth of data generated by the Human Microbiome Project, across multiple body habitats, individuals and timepoints.
While existing sloth species have relatively small body sizes, a phylogenetic analysis that includes fossil species suggests this is unrepresentative of long-term evolutionary trends in this group which were towards larger and larger body sizes.
In a comparison of four non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD) prediction scores, liver fat score (LFS) is the most robust in identifying NAFLD in an American population, suggesting LFS could be used to predict liver-related mortality.
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