方法

本部分向读者详细阐述你是如何开展此项工作的。你应该:

  • 使用小标题区分不同的方法。
  • 用一般过去时描述你开展的工作。
  • 如果采用的是新方法,应详细地加以描述,以便其他研究人员也能重复你的工作。
  • 如果采用的是众所周知的方法,简要提及即可;提供一条读者可以通过其查看到更多细节的参考文献。
  • 准确描述对已有方法所作的任何改动。
  • 说明全部统计学检验和参数。

Example

Source

Mariëtte Lokate, Petra HM Peeters,Linda M Peelen, Gerco Haars, Wouter B Veldhuis and Carla H van Gils. Mammographic density and breast cancer risk: the role of the fat surrounding the fibroglandular tissue. Breast Cancer Research, 2011 Dec 3;13(5):R103. Publisher full text

Methods

Study population [CLEAR SUBHEADING]

The study population comprises participants of the Prospect-EPIC study [28], which is a part of the EPIC-NL study [29]. EPIC-NL is the Dutch contribution to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study [30,31]. The Prospect-EPIC participants were recruited through the breast cancer screening programme in Utrecht and vicinity... All participants gave their informed consent and the study was approved by The Institutional Review Board of the University Medical Centre Utrecht.

Mammographic density assessment [CLEAR SUBHEADING]

Mammographic density was assessed on the left mediolateral oblique mammograms (MLO) taken at the time of recruitment into the cohort...

For assessing the mammographic density, Cumulus software (University of Toronto, ON, Canada) was used [33]. With this software, two thresholds were set by the reader; one to distinguish the breast area from the background and a second to distinguish the dense from the non-dense area... [ESTABLISHED METHOD]

Statistical analysis [CLEAR SUBHEADING]

Patient characteristics were described within quintiles of dense area and non-dense area among controls. For continuous variables we used means with standard deviations if normally distributed and medians with interquartile ranges of not normally distributed data (number of children). For categorical variables, we show proportions...

Correlations between density measures with BMI and each other are calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficient. The non-linear density measures were transformed using natural logarithm in order to get normally distributed measures...

All P-values are two-sided and if below 0.05 the results were considered statistically significant. Analyses were conducted using PASW Statistics 17.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). [STATISTICAL TESTS AND PARAMETERS]

请查阅目标期刊的投稿指南据此撰写“方法”部分。此外,也可参考该期刊在网上公布的论文样板。

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